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45 Cards in this Set

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Applied Social Research
Getting information for various groups byusing knowledge and research (descriptive studies, analytical/explanatory studies, evaluative studies)
Descriptive Studies
Focused on a particular problem
Analytical/Explanatory Studies
Focused on why events take place
Evaluative Studies
Focused on how well a program is working/will work
Descriptive Research
Research that describes social reality/how society works
Social Functionalism
The theory that societies contain certain interdependent structures, each of which performs certain functions for the maintenance of society.
Manifest Functions
Intended and recognized functions in a social system
Latent Functions
Neither intended nor recognized functions in a social system.
Conflict Theory
The structure of society is determined by its economic organization, particularly by the ownership of property. Conflict is a permanent feature of social life; societies are in a state of constant change.
Exchange Theory
Life is a series of exchanges involving rewards and costs. People seek rewarding statuses, relationships, and experiences and try to avoid costs, pain and punishments. Voluntary social interactions are contingent on rewarding reactions from others. When rewarding reactions cease, either the action ends or dissatisfatction results.
Social Facts
Durkheim. Social Phenomena are social facts. Every way of acdting, fixed or not, capable of exercising on the individual. An external constraint
Durkheim's Study on Suicide
Established a unique model for social research. Demonstrated that human behavior can be understood only by investigating the social context in which the behavior takes place. Suicide is a social phenomenon related to the individual's involvement in group life. The more a person is integrated into intimate social groups, the less likely suicide is.
Father of Sociology
Auguste Comte
Herbert Spencer
"Survival of the Fittest" First to believe that human societies evolve according to the principles of natural law. Societies evolve from relative homogeneity and simplicity to heterogeneity and complexity. Policy for non-interference in human affairs and society.
Karl Marx
"Communist Manifesto" Social conflict is at the core of society and is the source of all social change. Economic determinism, class consciousness. Cappitalists and proletariats make up society.
Max Weber
Structural Functional Theory. Discussed why men claim authority and expect their wishes to be obeyed. Verstehen, social class involves subjective perceptions ow power, wealth, ownershipa nd social prestige as well as the objetive aspects of applying these factors
Versetehen
Understanding human action by examining the subjective meanings that people attach to their own behavior and the behavior of others
Ethical Concerns of Social Research
1. To harm? 2. To deceive? 3. Invade Privacy? 4. Informed consent? Human subjects? Should research be conducted if the knowledge it leads to has the potential for harm or misuse?
Objectivity in research
Total objectivity in research may be impossible. To minimize bias: recognize the influence it has and strive to eliminate the influence of those whoc an be controlled
Operational Defiinition
A definition of a concept such that it can be measured
Process of Socialization
Family, school, peers, religious institutions, and the media. All of these encorporate and reinforce the values of society and social structure.
Validity in Research
The extent to which observations actually yield measures of what they are supposed to measure. Reliable: getting same results each time. Valid: accurate.
Independent Variable
Varial presumed to cause an effect
Dependent Variable
Affected by Independent Variable
Participant Observation
Researcher is an active participant in the event being studied. Used to study a particular community of subculture. Personal interaction, deep understanding of emotion/beliefs
Socialization
The lifelong process in which people are prepeared to participate in society. Begins at birth
Random Sample
by chance, every member of group has equal chance of being selected
Systematic Sample
Specific pattern of selection is followed
Stratified Sample
Population is divided into groups, then chosen randomly from within those groups
George Herbert Mead
First to describe why language makes humans different from all animals. Elements: symbols (language), role taking: process of figuring out how others will act (example: playing house)
Primary Group
Cooley. Refers to small, informal groups of people who interact in a personal, direct, intimate way (ex: family). FAce to face interaction, have mutual identification, shared feelings.
Secondary Group
Members interact in an impersonal manner, have few emotional ties, and come together for a specific practical purpose. May be fae to face and small but are more formal than primary groups.
Charles Horton Cooley
Theoriezed that the idea of self develops in a process that requires reference to other people known as "Looking-glass self"
Looking Glass Self
1. how we think our behavior appears to others. 2. how we think others judge our behavior. 3. how we feel about htier judgements. Not necesarily accurate. We tend to our opinions, ideas, deasires, feelings rather than pysical self, or we associate the idea of self with roles (student, athelete, friend)
Erving Goffman
Believed every interaction begins with presentation of self, how we present ourselves gives other people cues about the type of interaction we expect. Dramaturgical Approach
Dramaturgical Approach
compares social interaction to a drama onstage. When we interact, we prepare ourselves backstage then present ourselves on stage.
Bureaucracy
a hierarchical, formally organized structural arrangement of an organization based on the division of labor and authority
Deviance
variation from a set of norms or shared social expectations
Relativistic View of Deviance
The view that deviance can be interpreted only in the sociocultural context in which it occurs.
Biological Theories of Deviane:Medical View
Deviance is pathological, deviants are "sick" people and that society is unhealthy
Biological Theories of Deviance Moral/immoral View
Deviance is immoral and anti-social
Biological theories of Deviance
Particular defects or weaknesses in an individual's physical constitution produce deviant behaviors.
Merton's theory of Anommie
Deviance areises from the incongruences between a society's emphasis on attaining certain goals and the availability of legitamate, institutionalized means of reaching those goals
Conflict theory of Deviance
Most societies contain many groups that have different, often conflicting values and the strongest groups in a society have the power to define the values of weaker groups as deviant.
Suterland's Differential Association Theory of Deviance
Deviance results when individuals ahve more contact with groups that define deviance favorably than with groups that define it unfavorably.