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133 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
society
a group of people who share a culture and a territory
Auguste Comte
Father of Sociology. Applied Scientific Method to everyday life situations
sociology
the study of society
Social Darwinism
The notion that only the fittest members of society deserve to survive and the social programs to help the poor will ultimately weaken the social order
Emile Durkheim
The sociologist who conducted extensive research on varying rates of suicide
Karl Marx
Suggested that the force which drives human history and is at the core of human progress is class conflict
Max Weber
Believed the central force in social change was religion
Jane Addams
Co-founded the Hull House in Chicago
Theory
A general statement about how some parts of the world fit together and how they work
Functional Analysis
(Durkheim) The central idea is that society is a whole unit of interrelated parts that work together
Conflict Theory
(Marx) Society is composed of groups engaged in fierce competition for scarce resources
Symbolic Interactionism
Studies how people use symbols to establish meaning, develop views of the world, and communicate; Our behaviors depend on the way we define ourselves and others
Expriment
It investigates cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
Hypothesis
An unverified statement of a relationship between variables.
Hawthorne Effect
Subjects may change their behavior simply because they are getting special attention.
Sample
Target group you study
Random Sample
Where everyone in your population has the same chance of being included in your study
Participant Observation
The researcher participates in a research setting while observing what is happening.
Unobtrusive Measures
When researchers observe people who do not know they are being studied.
Spurious Correlation
A false relationship between two or more variable caused by another.
Correlation
A relationship by which two variables change together
Values
Personal beliefs about what is good or worthwhile.
Culture
The values, beliefs, behavior (non-material) and material objects that together form a people’s way of life and are passed from one generation to the next.
Nonmaterial Culture
The intangible world of ideas created by members of a society. A group’s way of thinking and doing
Material Culture
The tangible things created by members of a society – distinguishes a group of people
Culture Shock
DISORIENTATION DUE TO THE INABILITY TO MAKE SENSE OUT OF ONE’S SURROUNDINGS
Ethnocentrism
Tendency for an individual to use their own group’s way of doing things as a yardstick for judging others
Cultural Relativism
When we try to understand a people from the framework of the culture being studied
Language
A system of symbols that allows people to communicate with one another
Beliefs
Specific statements that a people hold to true
Norms
Rules of behavior that develop out of a group’s values
Folkways
Norms for routine and causal interaction
Mores
Widely observed and have great moral Significance
Taboos
Norms so strongly ingrained that even the thought of its violation is greeted with revulsion
Social Control
Various means by which members of society encourage conformity to norms
Ideal Culture
THE WAY THINGS SHOULD BE
Real Culture
The way things actully occur in everyday life
Socialization
The lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential
Personality
Person’s fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling.
Nature
Heredity
Nurture
Social Environment
Self
The part of the individual’s personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
Jean Piaget
Studied human cognition, how people think
The Greatest Impact on Socialization
Family
Total Institution
A setting in which people are isolated from the rest of society and manipulated by an administrative staff
Resocialization
Radically changing an inmate’s personality by carefully controlling the environment
Degradation Ceremony
Their identity is broken down, and a new self is re-built
Life Course
Stages from birth to death
Erik Erikson
8 Stages Theory
Social Interaction
The process by which people act and react in reaction to others
Status
A social position that one occupies
Status Se
All the statuses a person holds at a give time
Master Status
A status that has special importance for social identity
Role
Behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
Roll Set
conflict between roles corresponding to two or more statuses.
When we experience being pulled in several different directions
Roll Conflict
conflict between roles corresponding to two or more statuses.
When we experience being pulled in several different directions
Roll Strain
Tension between roles connected to a single status
Social Construction of Reality
The process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction.
Background Assumptions
Your ideas about the way life is and the way things ought to work.
Ethnomethodology
The study of how people use commonsense understandings to get through everyday life
Nonverbal Communication
Using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech.
Primary Group
A small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships.
Secondary Group
A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
Ingroup
A social group commanding a member’s esteem and loyalty
Outgroup
A social group toward which one feels competition or opposition
Reference Group
The group we use as standards to evaluate ourselves
Social Network
"Cliques.” Ties that extend outward from yourself, gradually encompassing more and more people
Network
A web of weak social ties
Dyad
Social group with 2 members
Triad
Social group with 3 members; more stable because 1 can act as a mediator
Instrumental Leadership
Leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks
Expressive Leadership
Leadership that focuses on collective well-being
Asch's Experiment
Conformity with the lines
Milgram's Experiment
Pain at Yale stuff
Groupthink
The tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue
Deviance
Any recognized violation of cultural norms
Crime
The violation of a society’s formally enacted criminal law.
Negative Sanctions
Disapproval of deviance
Positive Sanctions
Used to reward people for conforming to norms
Social Control
Attempts by society to regulate people’s thought and behavior.
Strain Theory
People who experience strain are likely to feel anomie
Differential Association Theory
We learn to deviate or to conform to norms mostly by the different groups we associate with
Labelling Theory
The view that labels become a part of our self-concept, which helps to set us on paths that propel us into or divert us from deviance
Hate Crime
A criminal act against a person or person’s property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
Retribution
The public’s craving for revenge
Income
Wages or salary from work and earnings from investments
Wealth
The total value of money and other assets, minus outstanding debts.
Power
The ability to carry out your will despite resistance
Power Elite
Those who make the big decisions in U.S. society
Prestige
Respect or Regard
Relative Poverty
Deprivation of some people in relation to those who have more.
Absolute Poverty
The deprivation of resources that is life threatening
Gender Stratification
Unequal distribution of wealth, power and privilege between men and women
Sexual Harassment
Comments, gestures, or physical contact of a sexual nature that are deliberate, repeated and unwelcome
Liberal Feminism
Free to develop own talents and interests - individualistic
Socialist Feminism
Pursue collective (male and female) personal liberation
Radical Feminism
Eliminate Gender
Race
A socially constructed category composed of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
Ethnicity
People who identify with one another on the basis of a shared cultural heritage
Minority Group
Any category of people, distinguished by physical or cultural difference, that a society sets apart for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination
Discrimination
An action. An unfair treatment directed against someone
Prejudice
An attitude. A rigid and irrational generalization about an entire category of people
Racism
The belief that one racial category is innately superior to another
Stereotyping
An exaggerated description of an entire category of people
Institutional Discrimination/Prejudice
Bias inherent in the operation of society’s institutions
Scapegoat Theory
Disadvantaged people who unfairly blame minorities for their own problems
Authoritarian Personality Theory
Ridged moralists with little education who see things in “black & white” Highly prejudiced people are insecure, conformist, submissive to superiors, and have deep respect for authority
Culture Theory
Everyone has some prejudice because it is embedded in culture
Pluralism
A state in which racial and ethnic minorities are distinct but have social parity
Multiculturalism
Permits and encourages racial and ethnic variation
Assimilation
The process by which minorities gradually adopt patterns of the dominant category
Segregation
The physical and social separation of categories of people
Ageism
Discrimination against the elderly
Capitalism*
(1) private ownership, (2) market competition, and (3) the pursuit of profit.
Charismatic Authority*
Based on an individual’s outstanding traits, which attract followers.
Coercion*
Illegitimate power that people do not accept as just
Communism*
Hypothetical economic & political system in which all members of a society are socially equal.
Global Economy*
The dominance of capitalism is rooted in a social invention called the corporation.
Multinational Corporations*
corporations that operate across national borders.
Power*
Ability to achieve desired ends despite resistance from others
Socialism*
(1) public ownership of the means of production, (2) central planning, and (3) the distribution of goods without a profit motive.
Welfare Capitalism*
private citizens own the means of production, but they do so within a vast system of laws
Blended family
When a new parent enters a family
Empty nest
When the last child leaves home, and the husband and wife are left.
Family
A social institution found in all societies that unites people into cooperative groups to oversee the bearing and raising of children.
Family of orientation
The family you are born into
Family of procreation
The family you form in order to have or adopt children
Sandwich generation
The generation of people who care for their aging parents while supporting their own children
Church
any moral community centered on beliefs and practices regarding the sacred.
Hinduism
oldest religion; 800 million; India and Africa; no sacred book
Islam
1.2 billion followers
Protestant Ethic
value emphasizing the necessity of constant labor in a person's calling as a sign of personal salvation
Religion
beliefs and practices that separate the profane from the sacred and unite its adherents into a moral community