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86 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Beliefs
Systems of symbols organized into cognitions about what should and does occur in specific type of social situations.
Cultural Conflict
Differences in cultural values and beliefs that place people at odds with one another, and hence, in potential conflict.
Cultural Contradiction
Inconsistencies in the various systems of symbols making up the culture of a society.
Culture
Those systems of symbols that humans create and use to guide behavior, interaction, and patterns of social organization.
Material Culture
Term used by some analysts to denote the artifacts and objects created by humans.
Empirical Beliefs
Cognitions that people hold about what actually occurs in situations.
Ethnocentricism
Tendency to view one's own culture or subculture as superior to the culture of other people or societies.
Ideology
Evaluate beliefs that say what should occur in situations.
Institutional Norms
Systems of symbols organized into very general expectations about beahvior in basic types of situations in a society.
Language
Systems of symbols used in communication
Norms
systems of symbols informing individuals about how they are expected to bheave and interact in a situation.
Postmodernists
General school of thinking, some of whose practitioners emphasize the effects of media and global capitalism in commodifying symbols systems.
Stocks of Knowledge
Implicit stores of information that individuals use to guide their behavior and interactions.
Subculture
Subpopulation of individuals in a society that posseses at lease some symbols that are unique to this subpopulation and, at times, at odds with the broader culture of a society.
Technology
Systems of symbols organized into knowledge about how to manipulate the environment.
Values
Systems of symbols organized into abstract moral ideas about goodbad, appropriate-inappropriate, and right-wrong. Values cut across diverse situations because they are general and abstract.
Community
Social structures organizing residence and activities of people phsyical space.
Focused Encounters
Episodes of face-to-face interaction revolving around an ecological huddle, eye-to-eye contact, focused talk, and solidarity.
Unfocused Encounters
Episodes of mutual monitoring of people's movements without focusing attention on each other.
Group
Small social structures composed of only a few different status positions, small numbers of incumbents, relatively dense ties among positions, and clear cultural expectations about role behaviors.
Institutions
Society-wide structure that organize groups, organizations, social categories, and communities to resolve problems.
Inter-societal Systems
Processes that create relations among societies, including trade, migrations, and political or economic coalitions.
Networks (of Status Positions)
Ties and connections that link status positions together, thereby forming a social structure.
Organizations
Goal-directed social structures revealing a division of albor and hiearchies of positions linked together by authority and clear norms.
Role
The behavior of individuals in status positions, as they take account of each other, norms, and other cultural symbols.
Role-Conflict
A situatoin where the roles associated with different status positions are incompatible, placing the individual tyring to play the roles of these different positions in a situation of conflict.
Role-Set
The expected array of behaviors for a given status position.
Role-Strain
A situatoin where there are either too many or contradictory expectations in the role-set of a status position, thereby creating tension and strain for individuals tyring to meet all expectations.
Categoric Units, Social Categories
Structures that are created when cohorts and types of individuals are defined and treated differently on the basis of their perceived attributes and characteristics.
Society
Structures encompassing all other structures (groups, organizations, institutions, categories, and stratification) that organize a population and provide political regualtion for these structures in geographical space and in relation to other societies.
Status Position
The location of an individual within a network of positions; the basic element of all social structures.
Status-Set
The complex or array of positions that an individual person occupies.
Stratification System
Structures revolving around (a) the enequal distribution of valued resources to the members of a society and (b) the distinctive categories therby created by virtue of the shares of resources held by different subpopulations in a society.
Backstage
Places where the self-conscious manipulation of gestures can be relaxed.
Ethnomethods
Concept introduced by Harold Garfinkel to denote the implicit interpersonal signals emitted to create the presumption that people in interaction share a common view of reality.
Encounter
Episodes of face-to-face interaction in which individuals present fronts and play roles.
Front
Erving Goffman's term to denote the use of gestures to present oneself in a particular way and in an identifiable mode of action.
Frontstage
Erving Goffman's term to denoting situations where individuals con-others, especially with respect to one's self on self.
Impression-Management
Erving Goffman's term to denote the deliberate manipulation of gestures and physical props to project a particular image of oneself to others.
Interaction
Process of individuals mutually emitting gestures, interpreting these gestures, and adjusting their respective courses of action.
Mind
George Herbert Mead's term to designate the process by which individuals covertly rehearse alternative lines of conduct, anticipate or imagine the consequences of each of these potential lines of behavior, and select that line of beahvior most likely to faciliate cooperation.
Reference Group
Perspectives of groups, both those in wich one is participating and those that are remote, which are used as a frame of reference fro self-evaluation and for guiding conduct.
Role-Take
Concept introduced by George Herbert Mead to denote the capacity to read the gestures of otheres and, thereby, to sense what they are likely to do in terms of their dispositions to act and the cultural symbols relevant to a situation.
Self/Self-Conception
Capacity to see oneself as an object in a situation and to carry cognitions, feelings, and evaluations of oneself as a certain type of person who is deserving of particular responses.
Cultural Directives
Profile of values, beliefs, norms, and other symbol systems that individuals use in guiding their behaviors and interactions.
Emotions
Moods or states of individuals revolving around, and involving elaborations of, such primary states as anger, fear, sadness, happiness, and surprise.
Generativity vs. Self-Absorption or Stagnation
Seventh stage in Erik Erikson's developmental scheme, lasting through mature adulthood, and during which success in family, work, and community lead to a feeling of being able to give to others, or if not, to self-absorption and stagnation in life.
Identity
Conception that people have of themselves in a particular social context and role.
Motives/Motivation
An individual's level of energy, and nature of energy, devoted to occupying positions and playing roles in society.
Role-Playing Skills
An individual's ability and capacity for role-taking and role-making in interactions with others.
Self-Conception
An individual's view of himself or herself as a cetain type of person with particular attributes and, hence, deserving of certain kinds of responses from others.
Socialization
Those interactions instilling in individuals the basic components of personality that are necessary for their participation in society.
Control Theory
Utilitarian theory of deviance, stressing that calculations of cost and investments determine whether or not people will deviate.
Deviance
Behavior that violates accepted norms.
Differential Association Theory
Theory aruging that deviance is created when there is an excess of criminal to noncriminal defintions of appropriate behavior in a person's biography.
Labeling Theory
The view that the labels bestowed on individuals become self-fulfilling prophecies that create expectations for deviance which, in turn, lead to deviance and deviant careers.
Structural Strain
Robert Merton's "anonmie theory" between goals and mens to achieve these goals.
Categorization
Process of placing others in the appropriate categoric unit; of determing the appropriate level of intimacy or formality to be exhibited; and of dtermining the realtive amounts of social, work-practical, or ceremonial content in the encounter
Demography
Number of people present, the social categories to which they belong, and their movements in and out of an encounter.
Display Rules
Normative agreements about what emotions are to be displayed in a situation.
Ecology
Nature of the space, partitions I space, props in space, and the distrubution of people in a space during the course of interaction in an encounter.
Emotion Work
Efforts to display the appropriate emotions in a situation, even when these emotions are not felt.
Feeling Rules
Normative agreements about what emotions should be, and are to be, felt in a situation.
Frames
Boundaries that are invoked by gestures singaling to tohers what is to be includied and exluded form the interaction.
Keying/Re-keying
Interpersonal gestures, often ritualized, that establish a frmae and that change the frame guiding an interaction.
Rituals
Stereotyped sequences of behavior that open, close, and structure the flow of interpersonal behavior.
Roles
Behavior of individuals occupying positions as well as the sytle of behavior that they exhibit.
Self
General conception and role identity about oneself that a person seeks to confirm in an interaction.
Territories of Self
Space that people can claim around themselves in pulbic settings and that others are not to violate.
Forms of Talk
Use of the right form of speech in an encounter, with respect to the volume, tone, formality or informality, ritual address, and other aspects of talk that give it its form.
Cliques
Division of group members into two or more subgroups of dense ties.
Diffuse Status Characteristics
Membership in a categoric unit that generates evaluations and expectations for how those in a social category are to behave. These expectations are carriend into any group as diffse status characteristics.
Free Riding
Tendency of group members to avoid making their fair contribution to group goals wihile still receiving benefits of this activity from other group members.
Group
Small social structures composed of only a few different status positions, small numbers of incumbents, relatively dense ties among positions, and clear cultural expectations about role behaviors.
Groupthink
Process in a group decision making in which members reinforce each other to the pint that the decision does not bear a close relationship to the realities of the situation.
Primary Group
Small, face-to-face groups in which people feel more involved, more intimate, and cohesive.
Reference Group
Perspectives of groups, both those in wich one is participating and those that are remote, which are used as a frame of reference fro self-evaluation and for guiding conduct.
Secondary Groups
Larger groups where face-to-face interaction among all members ins not possible, with a corresponding decrease in intimacy, cohesiveness, and duration.
Socio-Emotional Leader
Individual who seeks to smooth out tensions that arise as the members of the group seek to realize the group's goals.
Task Leader
Individual in groups who directs and coordinates other members' activities to accomplish the group's goals.
Coercive Organizations
Those bureaucratic structures in which members are forced to remain isolated from the society.
Formal Organization/Bureaucracy
goal-directed social structures revealing hiearchies of positions, linked together by authority and clear norms, with increasing numbers of incumbents at the lower levels of the hiearchy.
Informal System
System of ties that people develop within the formal structure of an organization; such ties often supplant but always supplement formal lines authority.
Niche Density
In organizational ecology, the total number of organizations of a given type seeking the same or similar resources.
Utilitarian Ogranizations
Those bureaucratic structures that people enter on the basis of calculations of costs and benefits.
Voluntary Organizations
Those bureaucratic structures in which people freely enter or leave the organization.