Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
knowledge had become too specialized, specialization had made knowledge irrelevant to life, morals
sociology as the new religion
political economis is the only study
Parson's Structure of Social Action
all social sciences involve a minimal unit act (agent, purpose, situation, standard of selection)
Conflict v. Consensus
look at society through its conflicts OR as an "organism" that must live in harmony for its existence
are social classes real?
Coflict-> fear of punishment
Consensus->shared values & interdependence
Positivism v. Hermeneutics
Positivism: quantitative observation
Hermeneutics: meanings must be read & interpreted, qualitative difference; social phenom are representations of intetions & meanings
Sociological Realism v. Sociological Nominalism
Realism: individuals are the phenom
Nominalism: social categories are just names
if people are not free, then no responsibility
freedom cross-interacts & limits
Definitions of culture
Values: abstract, limited
Norms: infinite, defined by values
Roles: patterns of behavior & mutual expectations
Historical Materialism v. Hist. Idealism
Materialism: economics determines everything

Idealism: ideas determine everything, values produce action
Is there a "core self?"
socialization learning process aims to internalize norms & values
assumption of self v. mask: the objective in social interactions
other cultures are immoral, Western thinking
Cultural Relativism
19th century
culture cannot be criticized from without, presupposition of equality
NS: inhuman, Nazi Germany, dnager in non-judgement
Parson's Thesis
socialization is an internalization of culture, joining expanding groups
culture is institutionalized by the individual
Socialization theory, behavior that is rewarded will be repeated, learning is an incremental process
drawback: only looks at elementary learning process
Freudian Psychoanalysis
human learning is an emotional process
Id: instinctual, ruled by pleasure
Ego: reality, boundaries of actions confirmed by experience
Superego: what should/shouldn't be, values
Imbalance causes problems
Freudian Stages of Development
Oral: touch, advancement to drinking, talking
Anal: toilet training
Phallic: son attracted to mother, father is rival, but too strong, so become like father (self-identification)
Freud Depth Hermeneutics
dream meanings are not readily apparentm study deep emotional thought
Piaget's Cognitive Development
children are not aware that things exist when they do not see/experience them
rational development of cognitive ability
Mead's Symbolic Interactions
individuals are products of interactions
human self is defined by duality
internal conversation requires play (take on different roles, but not at the same time), game (awareness of other players), I-Me
Life Cycle Theory
humans go through stages based on changes in social roles
Crime in the US
high rate of crime 1960-80 (baby-boomers)
now, less crime, but more prisoners
Labeling Theory of Crime
no act by itself is criminal (cultural relativism)
society defines crime
Biological Theory of Crime
innate forces causing crime
humans would loose responsibility
Social Determinism
punishment is oppressive
society causes crime
Marxist, Economistic Theories
people act rationally to maximize utility
how much is the cost? chances of being caught?
how much is lost/ganined by legit action
Strain Theory
society defines cultural goals and offers legit means of attaining them
when distro of legit means is unequal, crime happens
conformist v. innovator
(accepts goals, but uses illegit means to attain)
Solution: reduce inequality
NS: statistically unfounded, property is not the only goal, VALUES & MORALS
Cultural Theories of Crime
decline in morality & religion
lost emphasis on the family
cult of individ. expression
Utilitarian Theory of Crime
threat of punishment ought to deter criminals
weakness: does not consider cost of legit activity
make legit means more attractive
Differential Association Theory
criminals have different goals all together
different goals come from socialization
Social Control Theory
objective ought to be why some DON'T commit crime
if individ. is commited to society he is less likely to commit a crime
immediate gratification
supervision during development