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247 Cards in this Set

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Sociology
the systematice study of human society and social interaction
Global interdependence
a relationship in which the lives of all people are intertwined closely and any one nation’s problem is part of a larger global problem
“The sociological Imagination”
(C. Wright Mills) 1959:
Sociological reasoning described as … ‘sociological imagination-the ability to see the relationship b/w individual experience and the larger society
Auguste Comte
French Philosopher (1798-1857)
-Coined the term “sociology”…considered by some its founder
-Stressed that methods of natural science should be applied to the study of society so intellectuals like him could become the new secular “high priests” of society
-Believed best politics involved order and authority
-Positivism
Positivism
-belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry
Dimensions:
1. Methodological=application of scientific knowledge to physical and social phenomena
2. Social and political=use of such knowledge to predict the likely results of different policies so that the best could be chosen
Harriet Martneau
British Sociologist (1802-1876)
-Translated/condensed Comte’s works
-Wrote “society in America” examining religion, politics child rearing, slavery, and immigration in the US…focus on women, children and “sufferers”
-Advocated racial/gender equality
Herbert Spencer
British Social Theorist (1820-1903)
-Theory of general evolution=society has various interrelated parts that work to ensure the stability and survival of the entire society (ex. Family, economy, and government)
-“Survival of the fittest”-social Darwinism =belief that the best survive/adapt and poorly adapted die out
Emile Durkheim
French Sociologist (1858-1917)
-“The rules of Sociological method”-societies are built on social facts (patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside any one individual but that exert social control over each person
-Social facts must be explained by other social facts
-‘anomie’-a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and a sense of purpose in society (increased by strains caused by rapid social change)
-“Suicide” (Argued that high suicide rates were symptomatic of large-scale societal problems)
Carl Marx
German philosopher (1818-1883)
-Conflict (particularly class based) is necessary in order to produce social change and better society
-Predicted that the working class (proletariat) would overthrow the capitalist class (bourgeoisie) and establish a free, classless society
-Believed the status quo should be changed
Max Weber
German Social Scientist (1864-1920)
-Sociology should be value-free
-Believed bureaucracies were destructive to human vitality and freedom
-Important to understand how others see the world
George Simmel
-German Sociologist (1858-1918)
-Web of patterned interactions among people
-Formal socioliogy=approach that focuses attention on the universal recurring social forms that underlie the varyiong content of social interaction. Refered to forms as the “geometry of social life”
-Concerned w/protecting the autonomy of individuals in society
-Wrote more than 30 books
-concerned with similarities and differances in groups
The Chicago School
-1st department of sociology in the US
-the faculty was instrumental in starting the ‘American sociological society’ (now the American sociological association)
Park
-chicago school
-people in urban settings more prone to gender, class, racial conflicts
Parsons
-Extremely influential contemporary advocate of the functionalist perspective-all societies must provide for meeting social needs in order to survive.
(Ex. Division of labor between husband and wife is essential for family stability and social order)
Jane Addams
-Early woman sociologist, founded Hull House (one of the most famous settlement houses in Chicago)
-One of the authors of “Hull House Maps and papers”-groundbreaking book that used methodological technique employed by sociologists for the next 40 years
W.E.B. Du Bois
-Adlanta University
-Founded 2nd department of sociology in the US
-“The Philadelphia Negro: A social Study” ‘double-consciousness’=identity conflict of being both black and American
Functionalist perspectives/functionalism:
-Based on the assumption that society is a stable, orderly system, which is characterized by societal consensus, whereby the majority of members share a common set of values, beliefs, and behavioral expectations.
-Society is composed of interrelated parts, each of which serves a function and (ideally) contributes to the overall stability of the society.
-Societies develop social structures, or institutions, which persist because they play a part in helping society survive.
(Such institutions include the family, education, government, religion, and the economy)
-If any of these institutions are affected than the entire system no longer functions properly
Robert Merton
-Refined functionalism… distinguishing between manifest and latent functions of social institutions
-Manifest functions-intended and/or overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit
-Latent functions-unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants
(Ex. Manifest function of education is the transmission of knowledge and skills from one generation to the next. A latent function is the establishment of social relations and networks at all times)
-Dysfunctions are the undesirable consequences of any element of a society
(Ex. Dysfunctions of education in the US is the perpetuation of gender, racial, and class inequalities)
Conflict theory
-Groups ion society are engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce -May take the form of politics, litigation, negotiations, or family discussions about financial matters
-Simmel, Marx, and Weber contributed significantly to this perspective by focusing on the inevitability of clashes between social groups
-neo-Marxist, racial-ethnic, and feminist approaches
Wright C. Mills
-Key figure in the development of conflict theory
-Encouraged sociologists to get involved in social reform
-Argued that free-value sociology was impossible because social scientists must makie value-related choices-including the topics they investigate and the theoretical approaches they adopt.
-Believed most important decisions in American are made behind the scenes by a “power elite”
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives:
-Examines peoples day to day interactions and their behavior in groups
-Based on a microlevel analysis-focus on small groups rather than large-scale social structures (as opposed to macrolevel analysis that the other perspectives are based on)
-Originated in the Chicago school, especially through George Herbert Mean & Herbert Blumer (1900-1986) who is credited with coining the term symbolic interactionism
-Society is the sum of the interactions of individuals and groups
-Subjective reality-acquired and shared through agreed upon symbols (ex. If someone shouts “fire!” in a crowded theater everyone will have a similar response…attempt to escape)
-Subjective reality
-acquired and shared through agreed upon symbols (ex. If someone shouts “fire!” in a crowded theater everyone will have a similar response…attempt to escape)
George Herbert Mead
-importance of study of the group rather than the individual
-language and gestures
Deductive vs. Inductive approach
Deductive approach-researcher begins with a theory and used research to test it

Inductive approach-collects information and data and uses it to generate theories
Post-Modern Perspectives
-Existing theories have been unsuccessful in explaining social life in contemporary societies that are characterized by post-industrialization, consumerism, and global communication.
-There is a corresponding rise of a consumer society and the emergence of a global village in which people around the world communicate with one another by electronic technologies such as TV., telephone, e-mail, and internet
-Ignores inequalities based on race, class, and gender
Debunking
-a method used in sociology of unmasking fallacies (false or mistaken ideas or opinions) in the everyday and official interpretations of society.
Normative approach
N-uses religion, customs, habits, traditions, and laws to answer important questions. Based on strong beliefs about what is right and what is wrong and what “ought to be” in a society.
(Issues such as assisted suicide are often ansered by this approach. From a legal point, the consequences of assisting in another person’s suicide may be severe.)
Empirical approach
-attempts to asnwer questions through systematic collection and analysis of data. This approach is referred to as the conventionl model, or the “scientific method,” & is based on the assumption that knowledge is best gained by direct, systematic observation. Many sociologists believe that two basic scientific standards must be met:
1.scientific beliefs should be supported by good evidence or information
2.these beliefs should be open to public debate and critiques from other scholars, with alternative interpretations being considered
-sociologists typically use 2 types of empirical studies: descriptive and explanatory
Descriptive studies
-attempt to describe social reality or provide facts about some group, practice, or event. Studies of this type are designed to find out what is happening to whom, where, and when (ex. Descriptive study of suicide might attemp to determine the number of people who recently thought about commiting suicide)
explanatory studies
-attempt to explain cause-and-effect relationships and to provide certain information on why certain events do or do not occur (ex. Suicide-might ask questions such as “why do african american men over age 65 have a significantly lower suicide rate than white men in the same age bracket?” or “what are women more likely to attempt suicide than men?”)…conduct research in order to describe, explain, and sometimes predict why and how people will act in certain situations.
Operational definition
sociologists create these explainations of abstract concepts in terms of observable features that are spefic enough to measure the variable
Multiple causation
-an event occurs as a reslut of many factors operating in combination
cross-sectional studies
In developing the research design…
-based on observations that take place at a single point in time (behavioral responces at a specific moment
longitudinal studies
-concerned with what is happening over a period of time or at several different points in time (focus on process and social change)
random sampling
-every member of the entire population has the same chance of being selected
probability sampling
-participants deliberately chosen because they have specific characteristics
Validity
-the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure
Reliability
-extent to which a study or research instrument wealds consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or the same individual over time
Qualitative research model
-general approach instead of a detailed plan
-decide when the literature review and theory application should take place
-study presents a detailed view of the topic (small number of cases studied, but many variables
-access to people or other resources that can provide the necessary data is crucial (researchers often generate their own data…so they need to have access to people)
-Approprate research methods are important for aquiring useful qualitative data (obervation, participant observation, case studies, ethnography, and unstructured interviews…)
survey research
-poll in which the researchers gather facts or attempts to determine the relationships among facts (often done when researcher wants to describe, compare, predict knowledge, attitudes, and behavior
-multivariate analysis=research involving more than 2 independent variables
secendary analysis of existing data
-researchers use existing material and analyze data that were originally collected by others (public records, official reports of organizations, surveys…)
-referred to as unobtrusive research because it has no impact on the subjects of the study
-analysing content-contents analysis is the systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to extract thematic data and draw conclusions about social life (diaries, love letters, poems, books…)
field research
-“study of social life in its natural setting” observing and interviewing people where they live, work, and play
-participant observation-process of collecting data while being part of the activites of the group that the researcher is studying
-case studies-indepth, multifacited investigation on a single event, perosn, or social grouping
-collective case study-involving multiple cases
-require retaied, in-depth data collectiong involving multiple sources of rich information such as documents and records and the use of methods such as participant observation, interviews, and life histories
ethnography
-detailed study of the life and activities of a group of people by researchers who may life with that group over a period of years
-similar to participant observation, but tend to take place over a much longer period of time (reffered to as the “study of the way of life of a group of people”)
unstructered interviews
extended, open-ended interaction between an interviewer and an interviewee
-conversations in which interviewers establish the general direction by asking open-ended questions, to which interviewees may respond flexibly
-respondents to these interviews often chosen by “snowball sampling”-researcher interviews a few individuals who posess a cetain characteristic…and then the interviewees are asked to supply the names of others with the same characteristic. Process continues until the sample has “snowballed” into an acceptable size and no new information of any significance is to be gained
grounded theory
-inductive method of theory construction (collect and analyze data simultaniously)
Experiments
-carfully designed situation in which the researcher studies the impact of certain variables on subjects attitudes and behavior
conventional experienments
-divide people into 2 groups
-experimental group-contains subjects who are exposed to an independent variable (the experimental condition) to study its effects on them
-control group-contains the subjects who are not exposed to the indpentent variable
labaratory experiments
-subjects studied in a closed setting so that reseasrchers can maintain as much control as possible over the research
natural experiments
-real life occurences such as floods and other disasters that provide researchers with “living laboratories”
spurious correlation
-the association of 2 variables that is actually caused by a third variable and does not demonstrate a cause-and-effect relationship
The Hawthorne Effect
-experiments have problem of reactivity-the tendency of subjects to change their behavior in response to the researcher or to the fact that they known they are being studied
Triangulation
-approach of combining multiple methods in a given study
ASA code of ethics
-set basic standards that sociologists must follow in conducting research:
1.must endeavor to maintain objectivity and integrety in their research by desclosing findings in full and including all possible interpretations of the data
2.must safegaurd participants right to privavy and dignity while pretecting them from harm
3.must protect confidential information
4.must acknowledge research collaboration and assistance they receive from others and disclode all sources of financial support
Consumer society
-a society (such as ours) in which discretionary consumption is a mass phenomenon among people across diverse income categories Purchasing goods and services is not exclusive to the rich or even middle class; people in all but the lowest income levels may spend extensive amounts of money, while amassing large credit card debts in the process
a. Shopping and consumption are integral components of culture in the US and other high income countries
Culture
-the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society
-Composed of ideas, behavior and material possessions
-Society and culture are interdependent
Material culture
-the physical or tangible creations that members of a society make, use, and share.
-It is our buffer against the environment
Non-material culture
-the abstract or intangible human creations of society that influence people’s behavior
-Language, beliefs. Values, rules of behavior, family patterns, and political systems
George Murdock
-compiled a list of more than 70 Cultural universals-customs and practices that occur across all societies
-His categories included appearance (bodily adornment and hairstyles…), activities (sports, dancing, games…), social institutions (family, law, religion), and customary practices (cooking, gift giving…)
-while these general practices may be present in all cultures, their specific forms vary from one group to another and from one time to another within the same group
Symbols
-anything that meaningfully represents something else
-can produce loyalty and animosity, and love and hate…they help communicate ideas (ex. Flags stand of patriotism, nationalism…etc. but they can for other people in the society be a sores of discord and strife…such as the confederate flag during the civil war) gestures are a symbolic form of communication
3. symbols often affect our thoughts about class (how a person is dressed, or the car they drive serve, at least subconsciously as symbols of economic status…logos used to asses status of a brand name)
-may affect our beliefs about race and ethnicity
-symbolic meaning associated with black and white (though nobody is really “black” or “white”)
language
-set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one -verbal and non-verbal language help us describe reality
-according to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, language shapes the view of reality of its speakers
-if people are able to think only through language, than language must proceed thought
-Most sociologists agree that this hypothesis overstates the relationship between language and our thoughts. They contend that language may influence our behavior and interpretation of social reality, but not determine it
the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis
language shapes the view of reality of its speakers
language and gender
-English language ignores women by using the masculine form to refer to human beings in general
-The pronouns he and she affect our thinking about gender-pronouns show the gender of the person we expect to be in a particular occupation (ex. Nurses, secretaries generally referred to as “she” while doctors, electricians, presidents generally referred to as “he”)
-Words have a positive connotation when relating to male power, prestige, and leadership-when related to women they can carry negative overtones of weakness, inferiority, and immaturity
-Language-based predispositions to think about women in sexual terms reinforces the notion that women are sexual objects
-Gender in language has been debated and studied in recent years
language, race, and ethnicity
-language may create and reinforce perceptions about race and ethnicity by transmitting preconceived ideas about the superiority of one category of people over another
-from a functionalist perspective: shared language is essential to a common culture
-conflict perspective: language is a source of power and control (perpetuates inequalities between people and groups because words are used to “keep people in their place”
Values
-collective ideas about what is right or wrong, good or bad, and desirable or undesirable in a particular culture
-provide us with criteria to evaluate people, objects, and, events
Robin M. Williams Jr.
-came up with Core American values
-identified 10 core values as being important to people in the US:
a.Individualism
b.Achievement and success
c.Activity and work
d.Science and technology
e.Progress and material comfort
f.Efficiency and practicality
g.Equality
h.Morality and humanitarianism
i.Freedom and liberty
j.Racism, and group superiority
Value concentrations
-values that conflict with one another or are mutually exclusive (achieving one makes it difficult/impossible to achieve another)
Ideal culture
-the values and standards of behavior that people in a society profess to hold
Real Culture
-the values and standards of behavior that people in a society actually follow

Ex. We may claim, to be law abiding, but smoke marijuana
Norms
established rules of behavior or standards of conduct
-prescriptive vs. proscriptive
Prescriptive norms
-state what behavior is appropriate or acceptable (ex. We are expected to open a door for someone carrying a heavy load)
Proscriptive norms
-state what behavior is inappropriate or unacceptable (ex. You shouldn’t read a newspaper during a class)
formal norms
-written down and involve specific punishment for violators (laws…may be inforced by sanctions)
informal norms
-unwritten standards of behavior understood by people who share common identity (considered to be less important)
-not clearly defined, can be applied to any member of a group
folkways
informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture
-Provide rules for conduct but are not considered to be essential to society’s survival (ex. Wearing deodorant, brushing teeth…)
mores
strongly held norms with moral and ethical connotations that may not be violated without serious consequences in a particular culture
-Violators subject to ridicule, loss of employment, imprisonment…
taboos
-strongest mores
mores so strong that their violation is considered to be extremely offensive and even unmentionable
-Punishable by the group (or according to certain belief by supernatural force)
(Ex. Incest)
laws
-formal, standardized norms that have been enacted by legislatures and are enforced by formal sanctions
-Civil or criminal
cultural lag
-Sociologist William F. Ogburn -a gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions

-Occurs when material culture changes faster than nonmaterial culture, thus creating a lag between the two
(ex. Current technology makes it possible to create a national data bank of everyone’s medical records from birth to death (material culture) but people are not ready to accept it because they think its an invasion of privacy (non-material)
-can lead to social conflict and societal problems
-often set in motion by discovery (learning about something previously unknown/unrecognized), invention (process of reshaping existing cultural items into a new form), and diffusion (transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another through such means as exploration, military endeavors, the media, tourism, and immigration
Homogeneous societies
-countries that include people who share a common culture and are typically from similar social, religious, political, and economic backgrounds
Heterogeneous societies
-countries that include people who are dissimilar in regard to social characteristics such as religion, income, or race/ethnicity (like the US)
subculture
-category of people who share distinguishing attributes, beliefs, values, and/or norms that set them apart in some significant manner from the dominant culture
-Ethnic subculture-some people who have unique shared behaviors liked to a common racial, language, or nationality background identify themselves as members of a specific subculture, whereas others do not
counterculture
-group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seek alternative lifestyles
Ethnocentrism
-the practice of judging all other cultures by one’s own culture
-Based on the assumption that one’s own way of life is superior to all others
cultural relativism
-belief that the behaviors and customs of any cultures must be viewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards
Cultural Capital theory
-Pierre Bourdieu (1984)
-views high culture as a device used by the dominant class to exclude the subordinate classes
-he argues that people must be trained to appreciate and understand high culture
functionalist perspective on culture
-popular culture serves as a significant function in society in that it may be the “glue” that holds society together
conflict perspective on culture
-values and norms help create and sustain the privileged position of the powerful in -it becomes possible for political, economic, and social leaders to use ideology to maintain their positions of dominance in a society
-popular culture is merely part of the American capitalist economy (media conglomerates…Time Warner, Disney… create popular culture to produce commodities-objects outside ourselves that we purchase to satisfy our human needs or wants) –cultural improved intangibles
-popular culture can be linked to negative stereotypes or people of color, and perpetuate social inequalities
symbolic interacitonist perspective on culture
-people create, maintain, and modify culture as they go about their everyday activities
-some argue that people continuously negotiate their social realities (we reinterpret values and norms in each social situation we encounter)
-though many argue against this saying that people may be more controlled by their culture than they realize
Homogeneous societies
-countries that include people who share a common culture and are typically from similar social, religious, political, and economic backgrounds
Heterogeneous societies
-countries that include people who are dissimilar in regard to social characteristics such as religion, income, or race/ethnicity (like the US)
subculture
-category of people who share distinguishing attributes, beliefs, values, and/or norms that set them apart in some significant manner from the dominant culture
-Ethnic subculture-some people who have unique shared behaviors liked to a common racial, language, or nationality background identify themselves as members of a specific subculture, whereas others do not
counterculture
-group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seek alternative lifestyles
Ethnocentrism
-the practice of judging all other cultures by one’s own culture
-Based on the assumption that one’s own way of life is superior to all others
cultural relativism
-belief that the behaviors and customs of any cultures must be viewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards
Cultural Capital theory
-Pierre Bourdieu (1984)
-views high culture as a device used by the dominant class to exclude the subordinate classes
-he argues that people must be trained to appreciate and understand high culture
functionalist perspective on culture
-popular culture serves as a significant function in society in that it may be the “glue” that holds society together
conflict perspective on culture
-values and norms help create and sustain the privileged position of the powerful in -it becomes possible for political, economic, and social leaders to use ideology to maintain their positions of dominance in a society
-popular culture is merely part of the American capitalist economy (media conglomerates…Time Warner, Disney… create popular culture to produce commodities-objects outside ourselves that we purchase to satisfy our human needs or wants) –cultural improved intangibles
-popular culture can be linked to negative stereotypes or people of color, and perpetuate social inequalities
symbolic interacitonist perspective on culture
-people create, maintain, and modify culture as they go about their everyday activities
-some argue that people continuously negotiate their social realities (we reinterpret values and norms in each social situation we encounter)
-though many argue against this saying that people may be more controlled by their culture than they realize
Socialization
-the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
-link between individual and society
-enables a society to “reproduce” itself from passing in its culture from one generation to the next
Sociobiology
-the systematic study of how biology affects social behavior
-pioneered by Edward O. Wilson (zoologists)...he believes that genetic inheritance underlies many forms of social behavior such s war and peace, envy and concern for others, and competition and cooperation
-most sociologists believe that almost all behavior is influenced by society, and that our biological needs and emotional needs are related in a complex equation
Freud and the psychoanaliytic perspective
-Human behavior and personality originate from unconscious forces within individuals
-People have the urge to survive and to procreate
-Human development occurs at 3 stages and reflect different levels of personality
-ID-component of personality that includes all of the individual’s basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification
-EGO-the rational reality0oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate, pleasure-seeking drives of the ID
-SUPEREGO (conscience)-the moral and ethical aspects of personality
Psychosocial development
-Erikson: dentified 8 psychosocial stages of development…each stage is accompanied by a crisis/potential crisis that involves transitions in social relationships (which side they develop more is based on how children are raised)
i.Trust vs. Mistrust (1)
ii.Autonomy vs. self doubt (1-3)
iii.Initiative vs. guilt (3-5)
iv.Industry vs. inferiority (6-10)
v.Identity vs. role confusion (adolescence)
vi.Intimacy vs. isolation (18-35)
vii.Generosity vs. self-absorption (35-55)
viii.Integrity vs. despair (old)
Cognitive development
Piaget: In each stage of human development (birth through adolescence) children’s activities are governed by there perception of the world around them
-They go through 4 stages, and cant move on to the next on until they finish the previous
1. Sensorimotor stage
2. Preoperational stage
3. Concrete operational stage
Kohlberg
the stages of moral developmen:
-Elaborated on Piaget’s theories of cognitive reasoning by concluding and classified moral reasoning into 3 levels: 1. preconventional, conventional, postconventianal
Gilligan
-gender and moral development
-She is critical of Kohlberg’s model because it was based on male respondents. She argued that male and females often respond differently to moral questions, because they have different socialization and life experiences
-Men more concerned with law and order, and women analyze social relationships and the social consequences of behavior
-3 stages in female morality development:
-Selfish concerns
-Increasingly recognizes her responsibility to others
-Makes decisions based on desire to do greatest good for both herself and others
Self-concept
-the totality of our beliefs and feeling about ourselves. Made up of 4 components:
1.the physical self (“I am tall”)
2.The active self (“I am good at soccer”)
3.the social self (“ I am nice to others”)
4.the psychological self (“ I believe in world peace”)
-From early to late childhood focus begins to shift from physical and active self to social and psychological self
Social constructionism
-applied to theories that emphasizes the socially created nature of social life. Traced to coolly and meade.
Coolly
-the looking glass self: a persons sense of self is derived from the perception of others
1.imagine how your personality and appearance looks to others
2.imagine how people judge these things
3.develop self-concept (your sense of self is always developing)
role taking
-meade
role-taking=a process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person or group in order to understand the point of view of the group/person
I vs. Me
I=the subjective part inside of you, independent from others
Me=social part, acted upon, how you think others perceive you
Three stages of self-development:
1.preportatory (0-3)-imitate people around them
2.play stage (3-5) use language and other symbols to take roles of others
3.game stage-understand social positions and those of others around them
generalized other
-child’s awareness of society’s demands and expectations as a whole/or the sub-cultures demands and expectations
Symbolic interactionist approach to socialization
-emphasizes that socialization is a collective process in which children are active and create agents, not just passive recipients of the socialization process
-childhood is a socially constructed category
-children are capable of actively constructing their own shared meanings as they acquire language skills and accumulate interactive experiences
-peer culture-a stable set of activities, routines, artifacts, values and concerns that children produce and share
-focuses on group life rather than the individual
ecological system theory-
-Urie Bronfenbrenner
-the interactions a child has with other people, and how those interactions are affected by other people and situations. (4 ecological systems)
Agents of socialization
-the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society (family, school, peers, religion, mass media...)
The family (socialization)
-most important in all societies:
-functionalist perspective =primary locus for procreation and socialization of children
-conflict theorists=stress that socialization contributes to false consciousness: lack of awareness and distorted perception of the reality of class as it affects all aspects of social life…socialization reaffirms class structure in the next generation
-Social constructionist /symbolic interactionist perspective=helps us recognize that children affect their parents lives and change the overall household environment
The School (socialization
-effect on children’s’ self-image, beliefs, and values
-Functionalist perspective-schools are responsible for socialization (teaching students to be productive members of society, transmission of culture, social control and personal development, and placement of individuals on different rungs in society)

-Conflict theory-students have different experiences in the school system depending on their social class, racial-ethnic background, their neighborhood, their gender, and other factors. They socialize students for their later roles in the workforce

-Symbolic interactionist-focus on daily interactions and practices in schools affect the construction of students’ beliefs regarding such things as patriotism, feelings of aggression or cooperation, and gender practices as they influence girls and boys. School environment often fosters a high degree of gender segregation
Gender and racial-ethnic socialization
Gender socialization-the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society
Racial socialization-the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of one’s racial or ethnic status as it relates to personal/group identity, intergorup/interindividual relationships, and position in the social hierarchy
Social devaluation
-when a person or group is considered to have less social value than other persons or groups
Resocialization
-the process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one’s background and previous experience (can be voluntary or not)
Social interaction
-the process by which people act toward or respond to other people
social structure
-the complete framework of social institutions (such as the economy, politics, and religion) and the social practices (such as rules and social roles) that make up a society and that organize and establish limits on people’s behavior.
-Essential for the survival of a society and the well-being of the individuals because it provides a social web of familial support and social relationships that connects each of us to larger society
functionalist perspective on social structure
-it is essential because it creates order and predictability in a society, and it is important for human development
-gives us ability to interpret social situations we encounter
-macrolevel
conflict perspective on social structure
-there is more to social structure than readily visible and we must explore the deeper, underlying structures that determine social relations in a society
-social structures create boundaries that define which people/groups will e “insiders” and which will be “outsiders”
-social marginality
-results in stigmatization (a stigma is any physical or social attribute or sign that devalues a person’s social identity that it disqualifies that person from full social acceptance (such as a convicted criminal)
social marginality
-the state of being part insider and part outsiders in the social structure (coined by Robert Park to refer to people who share the life and traditions of 2 distinct groups (such as immigrants)
status
-socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties
-exist independently of the people occupying them
-social identity is derived from a status set which comprises all the statues that a person occupies at a given time
Ascribed status
-social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life, based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control (i.e. Race, ethnicity, gender, age…)
achieved status
-social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort (i.e. Education, occupation, income)
-ascribed statuses have a significant impact on the achieved statuses we obtain (those advantaged in ascribed statuses are likely to be advantaged in achieved ones as well)
master status
-the most important status a person occupies; it dominates all of the individuals other statuses and is the overriding ingredient in determining a person’s general social position (being poor or rich is a master status that influences many other aspects of life)
-vital to how we view ourselves, are seem by others, an interact with others
status symbols
-material signs that inform others of a person’s specific status
roles
-the dynamic aspect of a statues…a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status
role expectations
-a group’s or society’s definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played
role performance
how a person actually plays a role
role conflict
-occurs when incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statues held at the same time
role strain
-occurs when incompatible demands are build into a single status that a person occupies
Role distancing
-occurs when people consciously foster the impression of a lack of commitment or attachment to a particular role and merely go through the motions of role performance.
-people use distancing techniques when they do not want others to take them as the “self’ implied in a particular role, especially if they think the role is “beneath them”
Role Exit
Role Exit-occurs when people disengage from social roles that have been central to their self-identity.
-Helen Rose Fuchs Ebaugh: role exit occurs in 4 stages:
1. doubt-people experience frustration
2. Search for alternatives
3. turning point-people realize they must take some final action
4. Creating a new identity
Social group
-consists of 2 or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence (family, close friends…)
primary group
-a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time (such as schools, churches, and corporations)
-few, if any, emotional ties to one another
-come together for specific purposes
Social solidarity (cohesion)
-Social solidarity (cohesion) relates to a groups ability to maintain itself in the face of obstacles. Exists when social bonds, attractions, or other forces hold members of a group in interaction over a period of time
Social network
-series of social relationships that link an individual to others
formal organization
-highly structured group formed for the purpose of completing certain tasks or achieving specific goals (college, government, corporations…)
Social institution
-a set of organized beliefs and rules that establish how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs (family, religion, education, economy, government, mass media, sports, science and medicine, and the military…)
-a standardized was of doing something
functionalist perspective on social institution
Functional theorists believe social institutions exist b/c they perform 5 essential tasks:
1.replacing members-family provides structure for sexual activity, thus procreation
2.teaching new members a society’s values and customs
3.producing, distributing, and consuming goods and services
4.preserving order
5.providing and maintaining a sense of purpose-in order to motivate people to cooperate with one another
conflict perspective on social institution
-agree with functionalists that social institutions are originally organized to meet basic social needs. However, they don’t think that the institutions work for the common good of everyone
-maintain privileges of wealthy and powerful while contributing to the powerlessness of others
Subsistence technology-
-the methods and tools that are available for acquiring the basic needs of daily life -types of societies based on various levels of subsistence technology: Hunting and gathering, horticultural and pastoral, agriaian, industrial…now post-industrial
Typology
-a classification scheme containing two or more mutually exclusive categories that are used to compare different kinds of behavior or types of societies
mechanical solidarity
-the social cohesion of pre-industrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds
-Durkheim asserted that pre-industrial societies are held together by strong traditions and members shared beliefs and values and industrialized societies by dependence on one another
-to classify social change, he categorized societies (this or organic solidarity)
Organic solidarity
-the social cohesion found in industrial (and perhaps postindustrial) societies, in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence
-Durkheim asserted that pre-industrial societies are held together by strong traditions and members shared beliefs and values and industrialized societies by dependence on one another
-to classify social change, he categorized societies (this or mechanical solidarity)
Gemeinschaft
-a traditional society in which social relationships are based on personal bonds of friendship and kinship and on intergenerational stability
-based on ascribed status (means “commune” or “community”)
-strong sense of belonging, but limited privacy
Gesellschaft
-a large, urban society in which social bonds are based on impersonal and specialized relationships, with little long-term commitment to the group or consensus on values
Goffman (interaction order/civil interaction)
-Civil inattention-the ways in which an individual shows an awareness that another is present without making this person the object of particular attention
-Interaction order-regulates the form and processes (but not the content) of social interaction
-Social construction of reality
-the process by which our perception of reality is largely shaped by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience
-we see what we want to see
-Symbolic interactionists maintain that there is very little reality beyond what is socially created
Definition of the situation
Definition of the situation-we analyze a social context in which we find ourselves, determine what is in our best interests, and adjust our attitudes and actions accordingly.
Can result in…self-fulfilling prophecy
Self-fulfilling prophecy
-a false belief on prediction that produces behavior that makes the originally false belief come true
-ex. A person who has been repeatedly told they are not a good student might eventually come to believe it and stop doing/caring about schoolwork
Ethnomenthodology
-the study of the commonsense knowledge that people use to understand the situation in which they find themselves
-interactions based on assumptions of shared expectancies
Dramaturgical Analysis
-the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to theatrical presentations
Impression management (presentation of self)
-people’s efforts to present themselves to others in ways that are most favorable to their own interests or image
face-saving behavior
-the strategies we use to rescue our performance when we experience when we experience an actual or potential loss of face
Studied nonobservance
-a face-saving technique in which one role player ignores the flaws in another’s performance to avoid embarrassment for everyone involved
Arlie Hochschild
-we acquire a set of feeling rules that shape the appropriate emotions for a given role or specific situation
Emotional labor
-occurs only in jobs that require personal contact with the public or the production of a state of mind (such as hope, desire, or fear)
Non-verbal communication
-the transfer of information between persons without the use of words
-influenced by gender, race, class, and personal contexts
Deference
-symbolic means by which subordinates give a required permissive response to those in power (confirms the existence of inequality)
Social group
-a collection of 2 or more people who interact frequently with one another, share a sense of belonging and have a feeling of interdependence
Aggregate
-a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common
-occasionally, people in aggregates and categories form groups
Category
-a number of people who may never have met one another, but share a similar characteristic (such as education level, race, age, or gender)

-occasionally, people in aggregates and categories form groups
primary group
-cooly
-a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion-based interactions over an extended period of time
secondary group
-large, more specialized group in which members engage in more impersonal, goal-oriented relationships for a period of time
-there can be primary groups within secondary groups (within the secondary group of tufts…there are many primary groups)
Sumner
in groups and out groups
-In-group-a group to which a person belongs and with which a person feels a sense of identity.
-Out-group-a group to which a person does not belong and toward which a person may feel a sense of competitiveness or hostility
-In-group members typically view themselves positively/as superiors, and out-group members negatively
Reference groups
-a group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member
-often a source of anticipatory socialization: we may act more like members of a group we want to join than members of a group to which we already belong
-many people have more than one reference group and often receive conflicting messages about how they should view themselves
networks
-a web of social relationships that links one person with other people and, through them, with other people they know
functionalist perspective on group dynamics
-people join groups to meet instrumental (task-oriented) needs and expressive (emotional) needs
-groups help members accomplish things that would be impossible to do alone
conflict perspective on group dynamics
-groups also involve a series of power relationships whereby the needs of individual members may not be equally serves
Symbolic interactionists perspective on group dynamics
-focus on how the size of a group influences the kind of interactions that takes place among the members
Post-moderernists perspective on group dynamics
-groups and organizations are generally characterized by superficiality and deathlessness in social relationships
-Jameston: not only are postmodern organizations (and society as a whole) characterized by superficial relationships and lack of depth, but people also experience a waning of emotion because the world, and the people in it, has become more fragmented.
Georg Simmel
-similarities and differances in groups
Dyad-group composed of 2 members-the active participation of both members is crucial for the groups survival. If one person quits, the group ceases to exist
Triad-group composed of 3 members-the nature of the relationship and interaction patterns changes with the addition of the third person. The group can still function if one members declines to participate.
-2 members can create a coalition (subjecting the 3rd member to conform)
Absolute size of a group
the number of members a group actually has
relative size of a group
-the number of potential members (ex. small amount of people can protest on behalf of a large number)
functionalist perspective on leadership functions
-if groups exist to meet instrumental and expressive needs of members, than leaders are responsible for helping members meet those needs
Instrumental leadership
=-goal or task oriented, most appropriate when the group’s purpose is to complete a task or reach a particular goal
-have been linked with men
Expressive leadership
-provides emotional support for members, most appropriate when the group is dealing with emotional issues, and harmony, solidarity, and high morale are needed
-have been linked with women
Leadership styles
1.authoritarian-make all major group decisions and assign tasks to members
2.democratic leaders-encourage discussion and decision making through consensus building
3.Laissez-faire-are only minimally involved in decision making and encourage group members to make their own decisions
Conformity
-the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group
-often experience powerful pressure from groups to conform
Asch’s Research
-experiment to determine compliante: with 7 men comparing lengths of lines…only the 7th man was the subject, and Asch studied whether he would conform with others if they all answered incorrectly
-33% routinely answered wrong
-40% answered wrong half the time
-he concluded that in dyads the subject was much less likely to conform to an incorrect response than in 4-member groups (the effect peaked in groups of 7 members)
-when more then 1 member dissented the groups size had less effect
Compliance
-the extent to which people say (or do) things so that they may gain the approval of other people
Milgram’s Research
-experiment to determine obidience
How willing are we to do something because a person in a position of authority told us to do it?
-had subjects shock “learners” when they answered incorrectly…they kept doing it because someone in a position of authority was telling them to
Obedience
-form of compliance in which people follow direct orders from someone in a position of authority
Group conformity and sexual harassment: John Pryor
-subjects “trainers” were men showing women how to use computers. The study found that sexual harassment is more likely to occur when encouraged (or at least not actively discouraged), and that when people think that they can get away with something, they are more likely to engage in such behavior
Groupthink
Groupthink: coined by Irving Janis, the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise
-members usually want to be “team players”
Social exchange/Rational Choice theories
-focus on the process by which actors—individuals, groups, corporations, or societies, for example—settle on one optimal outcome out of a range of possible choices.
Utilitarianism
-(foundation of rational choice theories) belief that the purpose of all action should be to bring about the greatest happiness to the greatest number of people
Social exchange
-based on the assumption that self-interest is the basic motivating factor in people’s interactions
Rational choice theories
-based on the assumption that social life can be explained by means of models of rational individual action
-More concerned with explaining the social outcomes than in prediction what an individual will do in a particular situation
-Actors are purposeful or intentional in their decisions; however, many theorists acknowledge that not all actions are necessarily rational and that people do not always act rationally
-Decisions effected by resources (those with less resources may settle for a second best option), and social institutions (constraints such as laws, religions rules, corporate policies often limit peoples choices)
Formal organization
-highly structure secondary group formed for the purpose of achieving specific goals in the most efficient manner (corporations, schools, governments…)
Normative organizations
-we voluntarily join when we want to purse some common interest or gain personal satisfaction or prestige from being a member
a.Political parties, activist groups, religions organizations…
b.Class, gender, and race are important determinants of a person’s participation on normative associations
i. Class-people can be excluded from organizations because they cant afford a fee
ii.Gender-1/5 of all U.S normative associations are all male
-conflict: the devalued nature of unpaid work derives from the fact the women have historically done most of this kind of work
(categorized by Amitai Etzioni)
Coercive organizations-
-associations that people are forced to join (boot camp, prison, mental hospitals…
(categorized by Amitai Etzioni)
Utilitarian organizations
-voluntarily join these organizations that can provide us with a material reward we seek.
(categorized by Amitai Etzioni)
Bureaucracies
-An organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules and procedures, and impersonality in personnel matters
rationality
-weber
rationality-the process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality and spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal ruled and procedures
-can be seen in all aspects of life, from small colleges to multinational corporations
-Ideal-type: an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as bureaucracy)
Ideal Characteristics of Bureaucracy
-Weber’s model highlights the organizational efficiency and productivity that bureaucracies strive for:
1.division of labor
2.hierarchy of authority
3.rules and regulations
4.qualification-based employment
5.Impersonality (detached approach so that personal feelings to interfere with organizational decisions)
Informal structure in bureaucracy
-informal structure-composed of those aspects of participant’s day-to-day activities and interactions that ignore, bypass, or do not correspond with the official rules and procedures of the bureaucracy
-(work culture…includes ideology and practices of workers on the job)
-workers create the work culture in order to confront, resist, or adapt to the constraints of their jobs, as well as to guide and interpret social relations on the job
Hawthorne Studies and Informal Networks
-besides the “Hawthorne effect” the Hawthorne studies also made social scientists aware of the effect of informal networks on worker’s productivity
-research of 14 men in “bank wiring room”…their informal norms kept them from being as productive as possible, but negative sanctions in the for of “binging” (striking a person on the shoulder) made the workers want to adhere to the informal norms of their clique
Positive and Negative Aspects of Informal Structure: two approaches:
1. Emphasis on control (eradication) of informal groups
-traditional management theories are based on the assumption that people are basically lazy and motivated by greed…so informal groups must be controlled (or eliminated) in order to ensure greater worker productivity)
2. second theory suggests that informal groups should be nurtured
-people are capable of cooperation, thus, organizations should foster informal groups that permit people to work more efficiently toward organizations goals
Chester Barnard
-focus on functional aspects of informal groups-suggested that organizations are cooperative systems in which informal groups “oil the wheels” by providing understanding and motivation for participants
Human relations approach
-views informal networks as a type of adaptive behavior that workers engage in because they experience a lack of congruence between their own needs and the demands of the organization
Goal displacement
-occurs when the rules become an end to themselves rather than a means to an end, and organizations survival becomes more important than achievement of goals
Ritualism
-concern of employees of bureaucracy with “going through the motions” and “following the rules”
Bureaucratic personality
Bureaucratic personality-those workers who are more concerned with following current procedures than they are with getting the job done correctly
-trained incapacity-workers are unable to come up with creative solutions to unique problems
Organization man
-worker whose life is controlled by the organization (some argue that most do not reach these extremes)
Joe Fegin
-study of 209 middle-class African Americans in 12 cities, found that entry into dominant white bureaucratic organizations should not be equated with thorough integration. (many experience internal conflict b/w the bureaucratic ideals of equal opportunity and fairness, and the prevailing norms of discrimination
-excluded from things such as informal communication and networks
"Dual labor market”
- theory that has been developed to explain how social class distinctions are perpetuated through different types of employment
-organizational conditions reinforce social stratification
Gender inequalities in bureaucracy
-the power structure of bureaucratic hierarchies can negatively affect white women and people of color when they are underrepresented within an organization
-“victims are re-victimized by the system”
Iron law of oligarchy
-the tendency to become a bureaucracy ruled by the few
humane bureaucracy
-1980s US…attempt to establish an organizational environment that develops rather then impedes human resources. Characterized by…
1. less-rigid hierarchical structure and greater sharing of power and responsibility by all participants
2. Encouragement of participants to share their ideas and try new approaches to problem solving
3. Efforts to reduce the number of people in dead-end jobs, rain people in needed skills and competencies, and help people meet outside family responsibilities while still receiving equal treatment inside the organization
Organizational structure in Japan
-guaranteed lifetime employment (until recently), teamwork
-quality circles-groups of 5-15 workers who meet regularly with one or two managers to discuss the group’s performance and working conditions
Gang
-group of people, usually young, who band together for purposes generally considered deviant or criminal by the larger society
cliques
-at their most basic level, friendship circles whose members identify one another as mutually connected
-“have a hierarchal structure being dominated by leaders, and are exclusive in nature, so that not all individuals who desire membership are accepted.”
deviance
any behavior, belief, or condition that violates significant social norms in the society or group in which it occurs
-some who may be considered deviant by one category of people are seen as conformists by another (ex. Gang members may deviate from mainstream society, but conform to the beliefs, values, and codes of the gang subculture)
-could be considered because of behaviors, beliefs, or conditions/characteristics (being obese, having AIDS…_)
-deviance is relative: an act becomes deviant when it is socially defined as such
-deviant behavior varies in ‘degree of seriousness’- ranging from mild transgression to qserious violations of law
crime
-behavior that violates criminal law and is punishable with fines, jail terms, and/or other negative sanctions
Juvenile delinquency
-the violation of law or the commission of a status offense(cutting school, running away from home…) by young people
Social control
Social control: the systematic practices that social groups develop in order to encourage conformity to norms, rule, and laws and to discourage deviance
Internal-take place through socialization…individuals internalize societal norms and values that prescribe how people should behave and then follow those norms and values in their everyday lives
External-the use of negative sanctions that proscribe certain behaviors and set forth the punishments for rule breakers and nonconformists
Criminology
-the systematic study of crime and the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and prisons
FUNCTIONALIST PERSPECTIVE ON DEVIANCE
-a certain amount of deviance contributes to a smooth functioning society

Durkheim-deviance is rooted in societal actors such as rapid social change and lack of social integration among people
-a natural and inevitable part of society


-functionalist theories suggest that deviance is universal because it serves three important functions:
1. clarifies rules (reaffirm the meaning of rules)
2. Unites a group (people unite in opposition to deviant “threatening” behavior
3. Promotes social change (deviants many violate a norm in order to change it…civil disobedience)

(Functionalists do acknowledge that deviance can cause dysfunction in a society. If too many people violate norms, everyday existence may become unpredictable, chaotic, and even violent)
Strain theory:
-Goals and Means to Achieve Them:
-Robert Merton
-People feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals
-often used to explain deviance from people in low income neighborhoods
-people adapt to cultural goals and approved ways of achieving them through:
1. Conformity
2. Innovation (accepting societies goals but adopting disapproved means of achieving them)…theft, drug dealing, cheating on income taxes…
3. Ritualism (giving up on societal goals but still adhering to socially approved means of meeting them)…even if you cant achieve wealth you will still try to maintain the appearance of a “hard worker” or “good citizen”
4. Rereatism (people abandon both the approved goals and the approved means of achieving them)…drug-addicts, alcoholics…
5. Rebellion (people challenge both the approved goals and the approved means for achieving them, and advocate for an alternative set of goals or means)
Opportunity Theory
-Access to Illegitimate Opportunities
-Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin: for deviance to occur, people must have access to…
Illegitimate opportunity structures-circumstances that provide an opportunity for people to acquire through illegitimate activities what they cannot achieve through legitimate channels
-they identified 3 basic gang types: criminal gang, conflict gangs (in areas that don’t have either legitimate or illegitimate opportunities members seek to acquire “rep” by fighting over “turf”), and retreatist gangs (those unable to gain success through legitimate means and are unwilling to do so through illegal ones. Usually results in drug use and addiction)
SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONIST PERSPECTIVES ON DEVIANCE
-deviance is learned through interaction with others-4 major approaches
Differential Association Theory
-people have a greater tendency to deviate from societal norms when they frequently associate with individuals who are more favorable toward deviance than conformity
-criminal behavior is learned w/in intimate personal groups, includes acquiring attitudes or mastering certain techniques
Ronald Akers-combined differential association theory with elements of psychological learning theory to create…Differential Reinforcement Theory-both deviant behavior and conventional behavior are learned through the same social processes
Rational choice theory (of deviance)
-deviant behavior occurs when a person weight the costs and benefits of conventional or criminal behavior and determines that the benefits will outweigh the risks involved in such actions
-people who commit crimes make careful decisions based on weighing the available information regarding situational factors (such as place of crime, targets…) and personal factors (such as what rewards they may gain)
-believe people should be taught not to engage in crime
Control Theory
Control Theory: Social Bonding
-Walter Reckless: society produces pushes and pulls that move people toward criminal behavior; however some people insulate themselves from such pressures by having positive self-esteem and good group cohesion. Many people do not resort to deviance because of:
inner containments and outer containments
inner containments
-such as self-control, a sense of responsibility, and resistance to diversions
-outer containments
-supportive family and friends, reasonable social expectations, and supervision by others
Travis Hirschi
-deviant behavior is minimized when people have strong bonds that bind them to families, schools, peers, churches, and other social institutions
social bond theory
-the probability of deviant behavior increases when a person’s ties to society are weakened or broken
labeling theory
-deviance is a socially constructed process in which social control agencies designate certain people as deviants, and they, in turn, come to accept the label places upon them and begin to act accordingly
-Howard Becker: moral entrepreneurs: often the ones who create the rules about what constitutes deviant or conventional behavior (they use their own perspective of “right” and “wrong” to establish the rules by which they expect other people to live
-there may be several stages in the labeling process:
1. Primary deviance-the initial act of rule breaking
2. Secondary deviance-occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior
3. tertiary deviance-occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as a nondeviant (drug users who believe that using marijuana or other illegal drugs is no more deviant than drinking and therefore should non be stigmatized
CONFLICT PERSPECITVE ON DEVIANCE
-different branches of conflict theory over different answers to question ‘what kinds of behaviors are deviant or criminal?’ deviance and power relations, deviance and capitalism, and feminist approaches
Deviance and Power Relations
-the lifestyles considered deviant by [political and economic elite are often defined as illegal. The law defines and controls two distinct categories of people:
1. Social dynamite-people who have been marginalized (rioters, labor organizers, gang members, criminals…)
2. Social junk-members of stigmatized groups (welfare recipients, homeless, disabled…) who are costly to society but relatively harmless
-norms and laws are established for the benefit of those in power and do not reflect any absolute standard of right and wrong (those of lower-classes are more likely to be defined as criminal than those of middle and upper classes)
Deviance and Capitalism
-(Marxist/critical theory)…deviance and crime is a function of the capitalist system.
-Based on the assumption that the laws and the criminal justice system protect the power and privilege of the capitalist class
Feminist Approaches
-Liberal feminist approach-women’s deviance and crime are a rational response to the gender discrimination that women experience in families and the workplace
•Radical feminist approach-the cause of women’s crime as origination in patriarchy.
-focus on social forces that shape women’s lives, experiences, and shows how exploitation may trigger deviant behavior and criminal activities
-arrests in prostitution (women are more likely to be convicted than men)
•Marxist feminist approach-based on assumption that women are exploited by both capitalism and patriarchy
-linked to economic and social struggles that often take place in postindustrial societies
doing gender
-men who are attempting to improve their male self-image through acts of violence or abuse against women or children
Foucault
technology makes widespread surveillance and disciplinary power possible in many settings, including the state-police network, factories, schools, and hospitals
-post-modernist perspective on diviance
conventional crime
-all violent crime, certain property crimes, and certain morals crimes
occupational and corporate crime
-comprises of illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs
Organized crime
-business operation that supplies illegal goods and services for profit (drug trafficking, prostitution, money laundering…)
political crime
-illegal or unethical acts involving the usurpation of power by government officials, or illegal/unethical acts perpetrated against the government by outsiders seeking to make a political statement, undermine the government, or overthrow it
punishment
-any action designed to deprive a person of things of value (including liberty) because of some offense the person is thought to have committed. Historically, it has 4 major goals:
1.Retribution (punishment should fit the crime)
2.general deterrence (seeks to reduce fear of criminal activity by instilling a fearo punishment in the general public
-Most often focus on specific deterrence-inflicts punishment on specific criminals to discourage them from committing future crimes
3. Incapacitation (people who are detained will be unable to commit additional crimes
-selective incapacitation- offenders who repeat certain kinds of crimes are sentenced to longer prison terms (more focus on this recently)
4. Rehabilitation (seeks to return offenders to the community by providing therapy or vocational or educational training)
restoration
-recent approach to criminal behavior:
-designed to repair the damage done to the victim/community by an offender’s criminal act (based on restorative justice perspective-the criminal justice system should promote a peaceful and just society, therefore, the system should focus on peacemaking rather than on punishing offenders)