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64 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Hermaphrodites
people born with ambiguous genitals due to a hormone imbalance in their mothers womb
Sex
depends on whether you were born with distinct male or female genitals and a genetic program that released either male or female hormones to stimulate the development of your reproductive system
Gender
is your sense of being male or female and your playing masuling and feminine roles in ways defined as appropriate by your culture and society
Gender Identity
ones identification with or sense of belonging to a particular sex biolically, phychologically, and socially
gender Role
the set of behaviors associated with widely shared expectations about how males or females are supposed to act
Heterosexuals
people who prefer members of the opposite sex as sexual partners
Essentialism
a school of thought that sees gender differences as a refelection of biological differences between women and men
Social constructionism
a school of thought that sees gender differences as a reflection of the different social positions occupied by women and men
gender ideolody
a set of ideas about what constitutes appropriate masculine and feminine roles and behavior
Glass Escalator
social mechanism that accelerated men into higher level positions. they receive more disarable work assignments, and are paid higher salaries
Glass Ceilings
a social barrier that makes it difficult for women to rise to the top level of managment
Transgendered
people are individuals who break society's gender norms by defying the rigid distinction between male and females- cross dressing- behavior
Transexuals
believe they were born with the "wrong" body. they identify with and want to live fully as, members of the "oppisite" sex, and to do so they often change their apparance or resort to medical intervention
Homosexuals
people who prefer sexual partners of the same sex. People usually call homosesxual men gay and homosexual females lesbians
Bisexual
people who prefer sexual partners of both sexes
homophobic
people are afraid of homosexuals
gender discrimination
invovles rewarding men and women differently for the same work
female-male earning ratio
women's earnings expressed as a percentage of mens earnigns
Quid Pro Quo Sexual harassment
takes place when sexual threats or bribary are made a condition of employment decisions
Hostile environment sexual harassment
involves sexual jokes, comments, and toughing that interfere with work or create an unfriendly work setting
Affirmative Action
involves hiring a woman if equally qualified men and women are avaliable for a job, thus compensating for past discrimination
Comparable worth
refers to the equal dollar value of different jobs. it is established in gender-neutral terms by comparing jobs in terms of the education and experience needed to do them and the stress, responsibility and working conditions assoicated with them
economy
the institution that organized the production, disstribution, and exchange of goods and services.
productivity
refers to the amount of goods or services produced for every hour worked
Markets
social relations that regulate the exchange of goods and services. In a market that prices of goods and services are established by how plentiful they are (supply) and how much they are wanted (demand)
division of labor
refers to the specialization of work tasks. the more specialized the work in a society the greater the division of labor
deskilling
refers to the process by which work tasks are broekn into simple routines requiring little training to perform. deskilling is usually accompainied by the use of machinery to replace labor wherever possible and increased managment control over workers
Scientfic managment
a system of imporoving production developed in the 1910s by fredrick w taylor. after analysing the movement of workers as they did their jobs. taylor trained them to eliminated unnecessary actions and greatly improve their efficiency
labor market segmentation
the division of hte market for labor into distinct setting. in these settings, work is found in different ways and workers have different characteristics. there is only a slim chance of moving form one setting to another.
Primary Labor Market
composed mainly of highly skilled or well-educated white males. they are employed in large corparations that enjoy high levels of capital investment. In the primary labor market, employment is secure, earnings are high and fringe benefits are generous
Secondary Labor Market
contains a disproportionately large number of women and members of racial minorities, particularly African and hispanic americans. Employees in the seconday labor market tend to be unskilled and lack higher education. they work in small firms with low levels of captial investment. employment is insecure, earnings are low, and fringe benefits are meager
human relations school of management
emerged as a challenge to Taylors scientific management approach in the 1930s. it adovated less authoritarian leadership on the shop floor, carefull selection, and trainin gof personal, and greater attention to human needs and employee job satisfaction
quality of work life
movement originated in Sweden and Japan. it involves small groups of a dozen or so workers and managers collaborating to improve both the quality of goods produced and communication between workers and managers
quality circles
these are small groups of workers mentioned the previous definition
change in the decision making process following the human relation school
1.reforms that give workers more autority on the shop floor include those advanced by the quality of work life movement. 2. reforms that allow workers to help formulate overal business stratagy give workers more authority than quality circles
codetermination
a german system of workers participation that allows workers to help formulate overall business strategy. german workers councils review and influence management policies on a wide range of issues, including when and where new plants should be built and how capital should be invested in technological innovation
unions
organizations of workers that seek to defend and promote their members interest
internal labor markets
social mechanisms for controlling pay rats, hiring, and promotions within corporations while reducing competition between firmss workers and external labor supplies
Professionals
people with specialized knowlege acquired though extensive higher education. they enjoy a high degree of work autononly and uaually regulate themselves and enforce standards through professional associations
three social barriers make the primary labor market difficult
1.often there are few entry level positions in the primary labor market. 2. a second barrier preventing people in the secondary labor market form penetrating the primary labor market is their lack of informal networks linking them to good job openings 3. mobility out of the secondary labor market is difficult because wokers uasually lack the required triaing and certification for jobs in the primary labor market
free market
prices are determined only by supply and demand
regulated market
various social forces limit the capacity of supply and demand to determine prices
capitalism
the dominant economic system in the world today. capitalist economies are characterized by privated ownership of property and competition in the pursuit of profit
corporations
legal entities that can enter into contracts and own property. they are taxed at a lower rate than individuals and their owners are normally not liable for the corporations debt or any harm it may cause the public
communism
an economic system characterized by public ownership of property and government planning of the economy
oligoplies
giant corporations that control part of an economy. they are few and tend not to compete against one another. instead, they can set prices at levels that are most profitable for them
democratic socialist
countries, democratically elected governments own certain basic industries entriely or in part and intervene vigorously in the market to redistribute income
conglomerates
large corporations that operate in several industries at the same time
interlocking directorates
formed when an individual sits on the board of directors ot two or more noncompeting companies
mertitocracy
a stratification system in which equality of oppertunity allows people to rise or fall to a postition that matches their talent and effort
educational attainment
refers to number of years of school students complete
educational achievement
refers to how much studetns actually learn
tracking
invovles sorting students into high-ability, middle-ability and low ability classes based on the results of IQ and other tests
self-fulfilling prophecies
expectations that help causes what they predict
sterotype threat
the negative impact of negative stereotypes on teh school performance of disadvantaged groups
cultural capital
widely shared, high-status cultural signals (attitudes, preferences, formal knowlege, behaviors, goals, and credentials) used for social and cultural exclusion
credential inflation
the fact that it takes ever more certificates and diplomas to qualify for a given job
professionalization
takes place when members of an occupation insist that people earn certain credentails to ender the occupation. professionalization ensures standards and keeps professional earnings high
a cratique of Essentialism
1.essentialist ignore the historical and cultrual variablity of gender and sexuality 2. eseentailism is that it tends to generalize form the average, ignoring variations within gender groups 3. no evidence directly supports the essentailists major claims 4. essentailists explanations for gender differences ignore the role of power
essentialists ignore the historical and cultural variability of gender and sexuality
1. womens tendency to stress the "good provider" role in selecting male parnters, and mens tendency to stress womens domestic skills, decrease in societies with low levels of gender inequality. 2. socail situations involving competition and treat stimulate production of the hormome testoerone in women causeing them to act more agressivly. 3. gender differences are declining rapidly
Barbie
have been around since 1959, based on the creation a german cartoonist, the first modern doll modeled after an adult (lili, the german orginal, became a pronographic doll for men), scale model of a women with a 40-18-32 figure, scales that come with workout barbie always register a lithe 110 pounds
Thornes research to our understanding of gender socialization
1. children are actively engaged in teh process of constructing gender roles 2. school childern tend to segregate themesleves by gender, boundaries between boys and girls are sometimes fluid and sometimes rigid, depending on social circumstances
common reasons offered to explain the earning ratio (these are what are offered typically by are not necessarily true)
1. heavy domestic responsiblities reduce womens earnings 2. women tend to be concetrated in low-wage occupations and industries 3.work done by women is commonly considered less valuable than work done by men because it is viewed as involving fewer skills
tpes of feminism
liberal feminism, socialist feminists, radical feminists, postmodernist feminists