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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
shifting the focus from spiritual matters to the affairs of this world.
-increasing reliance on science rather than religion to explain reality.
-greater distinction between the religious and the nonreligious.
Secularization of religion
organizations that concentrate their activities on specific policy issues (ex. American Association for Retired People; NRA)
Special interest group
The top tier is used by the majority of Americans- they use private insurance or Medicare. The second tier uses Medicaid to pay for health care.
Two-tiered health care system
the state would give the parents of each school-age child the money spent for the child’s schooling to be spent on the school of the parents’ choice.
views society’s rise and fall in a series of cycles. Sorokin wrote that societies alternate between two phases, truth in science and truth in religion.
Cyclical theory
the family that you are born into (your parents and siblings)
Family of orientation
refers to people who find themselves sandwiched between two generations, responsible for both their children and their own aging parents.
Sandwich generation
standards of behavior that are deemed proper by society and are taught subtly in school.
Hidden curriculum
has much more restrictive rules about how you can get divorced. Purpose is to strengthen marriage and decrease divorce rates
Covenant marriage
the idea that a social movement cannot succeed without substantial resources, such as money, media, offices, etc. doesn’t matter what the cause is.
Resource mobilization theory
a highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people’s lives
social movements that target individuals and aim for total change, such as Alcoholics Anonymous.
Redemptive social movement
as people grow older, they give up the roles they filled in the past, and younger people take over these roles.
Disengagement theory
things we know through everyday experiences
the profane
the process of turning something that was not previously considered a medical issue into a medical matter.
Medicalization of society
population change=Births – Deaths + net migration.
Basic demographic equation
German word for society. through modernization, we moved from small, farm based society to widespread superficial society.
practices that are intended to invoke a sense of the sacred.
Karl Marx said that oppressed workers find escape in religion. For them, religion is like a drug that helps them forget their misery.
“The Opium of the People”
the number of children that the average woman bears. It is equal to the number of births in a year divided by the number of women of childbearing age multiplied by 1000
Fertility Rate
power that a society sees as legitimate
refers to the increasing percentage of older people in the US population.
Graying of America
1. Care based on ability to pay
-16% on people in the US (under age 65) don’t have health insurance
2. Fee-for-service payment: patients more likely to get care they need, but it’s expensive and also an incentive for doctors to perform unnecessary tasks
3. Third Party Payment: for people with health insurance, at least part of their
expenses are paid for by a third party.
4. Medicaid: poor people’s health care paid by government. Places limits on what hospitals can charge
5. A two-tiered system the top tier is used by the majority of Americans- they use private insurance or Medicare. 2nd tier uses Medicaid to pay for health care.
6. High cost of American Medicine: fees must be “usual, customary, and reasonable”
Characteristics of the American health care system
- Old Profile- violence would occur in poor intercity schools with a high dropout rate. a person would kill one person
- New Profile- suburban, white schools, high achievers. Kill many.
School violence: old and new profiles, connections
the two main dysfunctions are:
1. Religious persecution: religion has been used to justify oppression and any number of brutal attacks, such as the Inquisition and Salem witch hunts
2. War and Terrorism: history is filled with wars based on religion, such as the Crusades, and terrorism- 9-11.
Dysfunctions of religion
Symbolic interactionists study face-to-face interaction in the classroom. They have found that the expectations of teachers have profound consequences for their students. Sociologists observed that some students signal to their teachers that they are good students. They show an eagerness to cooperate, and they quickly agree with what the teacher says. They show that they are trying hard. Teachers pick up these signals and reward the good students with better grades. Sociologists don’t know how students signal messages to their teachers or how teachers form their expectations and communicate them to students.
Symbolic interactionist view of education
a social role that excuses people from normal obligations because they are sick or injured, while at the same time expecting them to seek competent help and cooperate in getting well. The sick role in dysfunctional for the person and society. Four elements of the sick role:
-sick people are not responsible for their condition
-sick people are temporarily exempt from their normal obligations
-people who are sick must want to get well
-people who are sick must seek competent help- if you don’t, you are considered responsible for being sick. You are denied the right to claim sympathy from others and permission to be excused from your normal routine.
Sick role
-Timing- early years of marriage; got married after knowing each other less than six months; got married at a young age
-History- previously divorced; from families with a history of divorce
-Social Factors- low income couples; couples with limited educational attainment; unemployed people; not religious; live in cities
-Incompatibility- dissimilar social characteristics
-Also- people with spousal alternatives
Reasons for increased divorce rates (broad social trends)
Socialist democracies have less freedom than Capitalist
Capitalist versus Socialist
whites have largest percentage of elderly and latinos have the smallest.
Relationship between race and aging
Modernization is the transformation of traditional societies into industrial societies. Four components:
1. The decline of small, traditional communities; moving from Gemeinschaft(small community, know each other personally) to Gesellschaft
2. The expansion of personal choice
3. Increasing social diversity
4. Future orientation and growing awareness of time
Four components of modernization
the population is tied to a society’s level of technological development. Four stages:
1. Pre-Industrial- farming, agriculture-based. High birth rate(no contraception; kids considered assets because work), high death rates (disease)
2. Industrialization- high birth rate, but decrease in deaths because of advances in medicine and more food available\
3. Mature Industrial Economy- decrease in births (contraception; high living expenses; kids no longer considered assets) and death rates decrease
4. Post-Industrial Economy- birth rate decreases, death rate stabilizes
The demographic transition
1. The ego-involved- person who is so deeply and personally committed to movement that it defines them
2. The concerned- believe in movement but don’t make it the center of their lives. (describes most people involved in social movements)
3. The insecure- enjoy being involved mainly because provides them with friends, entertainment, or sernse of purpose. The cause isn’t the main concern for them
4. Spectators- people who don’t particularly support movement but watch because curious. Add to the atmosphere, but not active participants
5. Exploiters- use movement for own purposes
Categories of social movement participants
grouping children according to their scores on aptitude and achievement tests. Two complaints against tracking:
1. It doesn’t do anything- not true
2. it’s unfair
Religion Followers Countries
Christianity 2 billion 254
Islam 1.2 billion 172
Hinduism 800 million 80
Buddhism 360 million 86
Chinese Religions 200 million 59
Judaism 18 million 125

Religion in the US: 85% claim a religious preference
-60% belong to a church or temple
-20-25% attend church services weekly
Protestant Denominations: 56%
-Baptist 21%
-Methodist 9%
-Lutheran 5%
-Presbyterian 3%
-Episcopalian 2%
-Other 16%
Catholic 25%
Jewish 2%
Other 2%
No Preference 15%
Which religions are common in the world and the US
1. regulation of sexual behavior and reproduction
2. socialization and education
3. status conferral
4. economic activity
5. protection
6. affection and companionship
The functions of marriage
for social movements to occur, all six of the following conditions must be present:
1. Structural conduciveness- social conditions that make it possible for certain movement to occur (don’t have black movement in white community)
2. Structural Strain- someone knows what goals are in society but don’t have means to reach them
3. Generalized Belief- people generate ideas about what is causing strain and what could be done to alleviate it
4. Precipitating Factors- incidents that make strain so immediate and intense that it serves as a trigger to collective outburst. ex- riots
5. Mobilization- brought into situation, work toward goal. (get people who disagree with something for march)
6. Lack of social control- control would prevent or slow down movement
Stages of the structural strain theory of social movements
-Pluralism- a system in which power is dispersed among many people. Interest groups (organizations that concentrate their activities on specific policy issues)influence government. Optimistic view.
-Elitism- political power and influence are dominated by a small handful of people
-who are the elite? Corporations, government, military
-power is seen as hidden and pervasive(extending its reach to many issues)
-Determining if the US is Pluralist or Elitist- Who governs? Who benefits? Who Wins?
-answers- large corporations and the wealthy
Pluralism and elitism
Church-cult continuum