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239 Cards in this Set

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sociology
the systematic study of human society
global perspective
the study of the larger world and our society's place in it
high-income countries
nations with very productive economic systems in which most people have relatively high incomes
middle-income countries
naions with moderately productive economic systems in which people's incomes are about the global average
low-income countries
nations with less productive economic systems in which most people are poor
positivism
a way of understanding based on science
theory
a statement of how and why specific facts are related
theoretical paradigm
a basic image of society that guides thinking and research
structural-function paradign
a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
social structure
any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
social functions
the consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
manifest functions
the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
latent functions
the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
social dysfunction
any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society
social-conflict paradigm
a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
macro-level orientation
a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
micro-level orientation
a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations
symbolic-interaction paradign
a framework for building theory that sees society as teh product of the everyday interactions of individuals
stereotype
an exaggerated description aplied to every person in some category
science
a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
scientific sociology
the study of society based on systematice observation of social behavior
empirical evidence
information we can verify with our senses
concept
a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplified form
variable
a concept whose value changes from case to case
measurement
a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
operationalize a variable
specifying exactly what one is to measure before assigning a value to a variable
reliability
conssency in measurement
validity
actually measureing eactly what on intends to measure
cause and effect
a relationship in which cahnge in one variable causes change in another
independent variable
a variable that causes change in another (dependent) variable
dependent variable
a variable that is changed by another (independent) vairable
correlation
a relationship in which two or more variables change together
spurious correlation
an apparent, altough false, relationship between two or more variables caused by some other variable
control
holding constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of that variable
objectivity
personal neutrality in conducting research
replication
repetition of research by other investigators
interpretive sociology
the study of society that focuses on teh meanings poeople attach to their social world
critical sociology
the study of society that focuses on the need for social change
gender
the ersonal traits and social positions that members of a society attch to being female or male
research method
a systematic plan for conducting research
experiment
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
hypothesis
an unverified statement of a relationship between variables
Hawthoren effects
a change in a subject's behavior cuased simply by the awareness of being studied
survey
a research method in which subjects respond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or an interview
population
the peole who are the focus of research
sample
a part of a population that represents the whole
questionnaire
a series of written qustions a researcher presents to subjects
interview
a series of questions a researcher administers in person to respondents
participant observation
a reseach method in which investigators systematically observe peole while joinig them in thier routine activities
participant observation
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
secondary analysis
a research mehod in which a researcher uses data collected by others
inductive logical thought
reasoning that reansforms specific observations into general theory
deductive logical thought
reasoning hat transforms general theory into specific hypotheses suitable for testing
culture
the values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that together form a people's way of life
nonmaterial culture
the intangible world of ideas created y members of a society
material culture
the tangible things created by members of a society
culture shock
personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
symbols
anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by eople who share a culture
language
a system of symbols hat allows people to communicate with one another
cultural transmission
the process by which one generation passes culture to teth next
Sapie-Whorf thesis
the thesis that people perceive the world through the culture lens of language
values
culturally defined standards by which people assess desirablity, goodness, and beauty and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
beliefs
specific statements that people hold to be true
norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its member
mores
norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
flokways
norms for routine or casual interaction
social control
attempts by society to regulate people's thought and behavior
technology
knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
high culture
cultural patterns hat distinguish a society's elite
popular culture
cultural patterns that are widespread among a society's population
subculture
cultural patterns that set apart soem segments of a society's population
multiculturalism
an educational program recognizing the cultural diversity of the Uunited States and promoting the equality of all cultural traditions
Eurocentrism
the dominance of European cultural patterns
Afrocentrism
the dominance of African cultural patterns
counterculture
cultural patterns hat strongly oppose those widely accepted within a society
cultural integration
the close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
cultural lag
the fact that some cultural elements change more quickly thatn tohers disruppting a cultural system
ethnocentrism
the practice of judging another culture by the standands of one's own culture
cultural relativism
the practice of evaluating a culture by its own standards
cultural universals
traits that are part of every known culture
sociobiology
a theoretical paradigm that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture
participant observation
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activities
secondary analysis
a research mehod in which a researcher uses data collected by others
inductive logical thought
reasoning that reansforms specific observations into general theory
deductive logical thought
reasoning hat transforms general theory into specific hypotheses suitable for testing
culture
the values, beliefs, behavior, and material objects that together form a people's way of life
nonmaterial culture
the intangible world of ideas created y members of a society
material culture
the tangible things created by members of a society
culture shock
personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
symbols
anything that carries a particular meaning recognized by eople who share a culture
language
a system of symbols hat allows people to communicate with one another
cultural transmission
the process by which one generation passes culture to teth next
Sapie-Whorf thesis
the thesis that people perceive the world through the culture lens of language
values
culturally defined standards by which people assess desirablity, goodness, and beauty and that serve as broad guidelines for social living
beliefs
specific statements that people hold to be true
norms
rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its member
mores
norms that are widely observed and have great moral significance
foldways
norms for routine or casual interaction
social control
attempts by society to regulate people's thought and behavior
technology
knowledge that people use to make a way of life in their surroundings
high culture
cultural patterns that distinguish a society's elite
popular culture
culural patterns hat are widespread among a society's population
subculture
cultural patterns that set apart some segment of a society's population
muliculturalism
an educational prgram recognizing the cultural diversity of the United States and prmotoing the equality of all cultural traditions
Eurocentrism
the dominance of European cultural patterns
Afrocentrism
the dominance of African cultural pattens
Counterculture
cultural patterns that strongly oppose those widelly accepted within a society
cultural integration
the close relationships among various elements of a cultural system
cultural lag
the fact that soe cultural elemets change more quickly thatn others, disrupting a cultural system
ethnocentrism
the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
cultural relativism
the practice of evaluating a culture by its own standards
cultural universals
traits that are part of every known culture
sociobiology
a theoretical paradigm that explores ways in which human biology affects how we create culture
society
people who interact in a defined territory and share a culture
sociocultural evolution
lenski's term for teh changes that occur as a society acquires new technology
hunting and gathering
the use of simple tolls to hunt animals and gather vegetation
horticulture
the use of hand tools to raise crops
pastoralism
the doestication of animals
agriculture
large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources
industrialism
the production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
postindustrialism
technology that supports an information-based economy
social conflict
the struggle between segments of society over valued resources
capitalists
people who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
proletarians
people who sell their productive labor for wages
social institutions
the major spheres of social life, or societal subsystems, organized to meet human needs
false consciousness
marx's term for explanations of social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than as teh flaws of society
class conflict
conflict between entire classes over teh distribution of a society's wealth and power
class consciousness
marx's term for workers recognition of themselves as a class unified in opposition to capitalists and ultimately to capitalism itself
alienation
the experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
ideal type
an abstract statement of the essential characteristics of any social phenomenon
tradition
sentiments and beliefs passed from generationt o generattion
rationality
a way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, mattter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient means to accompish a particular task
rationalization of society
webers term for the historical change from tradition to reationality as teh dominant mode of human thought
anomie
durkheims designation of a condition in which society provides litle moreal guidance to individuals
mechanical solidarity
durkheims term for social bonds, based on common sentiments and shared moreal vaules, that are strong among members of preindustrial societites
organis solidarity
durkheim's terms for social bonds, boased on specialization and interdependence, that are strong among members of industrial societies
division of labor
specialized economic activity
socialization
the lifelong social experience by which individuals develop their human potential and learn culture
personality
a persons fairly consistnt patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling
id
freud's erm for the human being's basic drives
ego
freuds term for a persons conscious efforts to balance and innate pleasure-seeking drivers with the demands of society
superego
freuds term for teh cultural values adn norm internalized by an individual
sensorimotor stage
piagets term for teh level of human development at which individuals experience the world only through their senses
preoperational stage
piagets term for teh level of human development at whuch individuals first use language and other symbols
concrete operational stage
piagets term for the level of human developmeent at which individuals first perceive casual connections in their surroundings
formal operational stage
piagets term for teh level of human development at which individuals think abstractly and critically
self
george herbert meads term for that part of an individuals personality composed of self-awareness and self-image
looking-glass self
cooley's term for a self-imae based on how we think others see us
generalized other
george herbert meads term for widesread cultural norms and values we use as a reference in evaluationg ourselves
peer group
a social group whose members have inerests, social position, and age in common
anticipatory socialization
learning that helps a person achieve a desired position
mass media
impersonal commuications aimed at a vast audience
cohort
a category of people with a common characteristic, usually their age
total institution
a setting in which people are isolated from teh rest of society and maniulated by an administrative staff
resocialization
radically changing an inmate's personality by carefully controlling the environment
social interaction
the process by which people act and react in relation to others
status
a social position that a person occupies
status set
all the statuses a person holds at a given time
ascribed status
a social position a person receives at birth or assumes involuntarily later in life
achieved status
a social position a person assumes voluntarily that reflects personal ability and effort
master status
a status that a society defines as having special importance for social identity, often shaping a persons entire life
role
behavior expected of someone who holds a particular status
role set
a number roles attaced to a single status
role conflict
conflict among the roles correcsponding to two or more statuses
role strain
tension among the roles connected to a single statues
social construction of reality
the process by which people creatively shape reality through social interaction
Thomas theorem
W.I. Thomas's assertion that situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences
ethnomethodology
harold garfinkel's term for the study of the way people make sense of their everyday surroundings
dramaturgical analysis
erving goffman;s termm for teh study of social interaction in terms of theatrical performance
presentation of self
erving goffman's term for a person's efforts to create specific impresions in teh inds of others
nonverbal communicaion
communication using body movements, gestures, and facial expressions rather than speech
personal space
the surrounding area over which a person makes some claim to privacy
social group
two or more people who identify and interact with one another
primary group
a small social group whose members share personal and enduring relationships
secondary group
a large and impersonal social groups whose members pursue a specific goal or activity
instrumental leadership
group leadership that emphasizes the completion of taks
expressive leadership
group leadership that focuses on collective well-being
groupthink
the tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue
reference group
a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions
in-group
a social group commanding a member's esteem and loyalty
out-group
a social group toward which one feels competition or oppistion
dyad
a social group with two members
triad
a social group with three members
network
a web of weak social ties
formal organization
a large secondary group organized to achieve its goals efficiently
bureaucratic ritualism
a preoccupation with rules and regulations to the point of thwarting an organization's goal
bureaucratic inertia
the tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves
oligarchy
the rule of the many by the few
scientific management
frederick taylors term for the application of scientific principles to teh operation of a business or other large organization
deviance
the recognized violation of cultural norms
crime
the violation of a society's formally enacted criminal law
social control
attempts by society to regulate people's thought and behavior
criminal justice system
a formal response by police, courts, and prison officials to alleged violations of teh law
labeling theory
the assertion that deviance and conformity result not so much from what people do as from how others respnd to those actions
stigma
a powerfully negative label that greatly changes a persons self-concept and social identity
medicalization of deviance
the transormation of moral and legal deviance into a medical condition
white-collar crime
crime committed by people of high social position in teh course of their occupations
corporate crime
the illegal actions of a corporation or people acting on its behalf
organized crime
a business supplying illegal goods or service
hate crime
a criminal act against a person or a persons property by an offender motivated by racial or other bias
crimes against the person
crimes that direct violence or teh threat of violence against others
crimes against property
crimes that involve theft of property belonging to others
victimless crimes
violations of law in which there are no readily appparent victims
plea bargaining
a legal negotiation in which a rosecutor reduces a charge in exchange for a defendants guilty plea
retribution
an act of moral vengeance by which society inflicts on the offender suffering comparable to that caused by the offense
deterrence
the attempt to discourage criminality through punishment
rehabilitation
a program for reforming the offender to prevent subsequent offenses
societal protection
a means by which society renders an offender incapable of further offenses temporarily through incarceration or permanently by execution
criminal recidivism
subsequent offenses by people previously convicted of crimes
community-based corrections
correctional programs located within society at large rather than behind prison walls
sex
the biological distinction between females and males
primary sex characteristics
the genitals, organs used for reproduction
secondary sex characteristics
bodily development, apart from the genitals, that distinguishes biologically mature females and males
intersexual people (hermaphrodites)
people whose anatomy (including genitals) includes both female and male characteristics
transsexuals
people who feel they are one sex even though biologically they are the other
incest taboo
a norm forbidding sexual relations or marriage between certain relatives
sexual orientation
a persons romantic and emotional attraction to another person
heterosexuality
sexual attraction to someone of the other sex
homosexuality
sexual attraction to someone of the same sex
bisexuality
sexual attraction to people of both sexes
asexuality
no sexual attraction to people of either sex
homophobia
the dread of close personal interation with people thought to be gay, lesbian, or bisexual
pornography
sexually explicit material that causes sexual arousal
prostitution
the selling of sexual services
queer theory
a growing body of research findings that challenges teh heterosexual bias in U.S. society
heterosexism
a view stigmatizing anyone who is not heterosexual as "queer"
abortion
the deliberate termination of a pregnancy
social stratification
a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierachy
social mobility
a change in ones position in the social hierarchy
caste system
social stratification based on ascription or birth
class system
social stratification based on both birth and individual achievement
meritocracy
social stratification based on personal merit
status consistency
the degree of consistency in a persons social standing across various dimensions of social inequality
structural social mobility
a shift in the social position of large numbers of people due more to changes in society itself than to individual efforts
ideology
cultural beliefs that justify particular social arrangements, including patterns of ineuality
Davis-Moore thesis
the assertion that social stratification is a universal pattern because it has beneficial consequences for the operation of a society
blue-collar occupations
lower-prestige work that involves mostly manual labor
white-collar occupations
higher-prestige work that involves mostly mental activity
socioeconomic status
a composite ranking based on various dimensions of social inequality