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179 Cards in this Set

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What is agriculture marked by?
The invention of the plow around 3,000 BC
What did agriculture replace? What is the root word?
Agriculture replaced horticulture - Latin ager = "field" and Latin hortus = "garden"
What was one of the main consequences of the plow?
TREMENDOUS EXPANSION OF THE SURPLUS due to greater productivty of labor
What does religion justify in agrarian societies?
Exploitation of the surplus through sacrifices and tributes
What trends are seen in agrarian societies in respect to the polity?
Decline in the role of kinship ties, emergence of government bureaucracies, emergence of professional armies, and the first formal legal systems
Who is mainly in charge of cultivating the fields in agrarian societies?
Men
What are consequences of the expansion of trade in agrarian societies?
Emergence of a merchant class, increased division of labor, and perhaps an increase in individualism
What were the 3 coinciding contrasts of agrarian societies?
1) Governing class vs. the mass, 2) Urban minority vs. peasant majority, 3) Literate minority vs. illiterate majority

- basically the urban elite vs. the peasant mass (2 "subcultures")
Did the agrarian era experience a decrease or an increase in the rate of technological innovation?
A slowdown in innovation - may be due to the exploitative nature and high level of inequality of the stratification system
What are advanced agrarian societies marked by?
The invention of iron metallurgy
Why did iron technology emerge so late?
One reason is the difficult chemistry of iron (found through trial and error)
What is quenching?
Dipping the hot steel in cold water or oil (additional refinement of iron)
What were some trends concerning population in agrarian societies?
1) size of societies and cities increase (b/c of conquest), 2) high birth rate, 3) high death rate (b/c of unsanitary towns, plagues, and famines)
What is a huckster?
An outdoor, street vendor (usually a vendor of fresh vegetables)
What is a scrivener?
Someone who wrote, also known as a scribe (people paid them to write things for them b/c most people were illiterate)
What is a currier?
Someone who prepared leather - softened it, dyed it, polished it
What is the proprietary theory of the State?
The State was viewed as the "personal property" of the ruler during agrarian era
Who said "L'Etat, c'est moi", and what does this French expression mean?
Louis XIV (14th) - "I am the State"
What 3 universal faiths emerged during the agrarian era?
Buddhism, Christianity, and Islam (in order of their emergence)
What does "In Hoc Signo Vinces" mean and whose motto was it?
It means "With This Sign (Cross) You Will Conquer" and it was Emperor Constantine's motto
What are possible causes favoring the spread of universal faiths?
1) broader outlook from expanding trade relations, 2) role of universal faith in unifying diverse populations

Note: there is still a persistence of belief in magic and fatalism and preoccupation with death despite the spread of universal faiths
In what ways did frontier societies of the agrarian era differ from more typical agrarian societies?
Frontier agrarian societies were more egalitarian than more typical agrarian societies
What are the 3 types of environmentally specialized societies?
1) Fishing societies, 2) Maritime societies, 3) Herding societies
What is the potlatch and in what environmentally specialized society was it prevalent?
A gift-giving ceremony where the more gifts a person gets, the more resentful that they become - present in fishing societies
Why did fishing societies rarely evolve into more advanced societies?
1) fishing population not easily depleted with traditional technology, 2) territory is hard to defend b/c typically it is a thin coastal strip (often conquered or absorbed into a more powerful horticultural or agrarian society)
What type of governments tended to be most common in maritime societies?
Republics (representative system of government) run by oligarchy of wealthy merchants
What was subsistence derived from in maritime societies?
Commerce from the large and powerful merchant class (NOT based on exploitation of peasants like in agrarian societies, therefore less need for strong centralized government)
What is another name for herding societies?
Pastoral nomadism
What are some characteristics of herding societies?
1) nomadic or semi-nomadic way of life, 2) patriarchal tendency, central role of men in production, 3) military advantage over sedentary agrarian societies b/c of horses and camels, 4) herders become the dominant caste after a conquest, 5) monotheistic - most likely to believe in high gods who are active in human affairs and support human morality
What type of society was most likely to be politically dominated by merchants?
Maritime
When and where did the Industrial Revolution begin?
Around 1750 in England (first in the textile industry)
What was the principal cause of the Industrial Revolution?
The growing store of technological information accumulated in the latter part of the agrarian era, especially advances in navigation and shipbuilding, and the invention of the printing press
Who invented the printing press and in what year?
Johann Gutenberg in Germany around 1450
What recurring theme was present in much of medieval art?
Fatalism and preoccupation with death
What are some of the trends that led to the Industrial Revolution?
1) Discovery of the New World (episode of inflation in Europe caused by the influx of gold and silver), 2) success of the Protestant Reformation (better work ethic)
Who is Max Weber and what was his thesis?
German sociologist who wrote the book "The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism" - emphasized that the Protestant Reformation had a substantial influence on bringing about the Industrial Revolution, this is controversial, however, because many of the first countries to be industrialized in Europe were Catholic
What was the traditional system of manufacturing before industrialization?
The putting-out system, also known as the cottage industry, was a domestic system where most of the work took place at home within the family
The textile industry was driven by a process of _______ ?
Positive feedback - meaning that each innovation in one component induced further innovation in the other component (between the spinning and weaving components)
What are some immediate consequences of the Industrial Revolution?
1) the factory system, 2) the industrial town
In the early stages of the Industrial Revolution, did living standards increase or decrease?
Decrease - example is children at work at the factories, also long working hours and harsh working conditions
Who adopted a standard model of still for the distillation of wine in France?
Major industrialist Chaptal in 1780
What were the two major goals that distillation technology in France evolved towards?
1) a one-pass process yielding any degree of purity (proof), 2) a continuous process (as opposed to the traditional batch process)
What were other minor goals achieved during the evolution of distillation technology?
1) elimination of the "fire-taste" by use of overhead steam instead of naked fire, 2) greater fuel economy, 3) improved safety (lower risk of explosion)
What important features does the evolution of distillation in France illustrate of the early phase of industrialization?
1) the growing impact of science on industrial technology, 2) the central role of the self-taught amateur-inventor and the romance surrounding him, 3) the impact of industrialization on the legal system (ex: patent laws)
A version of the fractionating column (oil refining process) was adopted as the principal machine in another important modern industry. Which one?
Petroleum industry (oil industry)
How many phases is the Industrial Revolution said to have?
Four (we are still in the fourth phase today)
What were the three principal industries that emerged during the second phase of the Industrial Revolution?
1) railroads, 2) rubber, 3) synthetic (artificial) dyes
What is vulcanization?
Discovered by Charles Goodyear - adding sulfur to a rubber plant to create rubber
What is aniline?
A chemical used to make artificial dyes
What are two organizational changes that emerged in the Industrial Revolution?
1) rise of modern bureaucratic firms (corporations), versus traditional family-owned firms, 2) rise of trained professionals (engineers, scientists) versus self-taught amateurs
In what country did industrial production of automobiles develop first around the turn of the century?
France
What were the principal industries related to new energy sources in the third phase of the Industrial Revolution?
1) electricity (Thomas Edison), 2) internal combustion engine, which led to the rise of the automobile industry (first in Germany and France, then in the US)
When does technological progress tend to be accelerated?
During war efforts (this happened especially during WWII)
What types of technological progress were made during war efforts during the fourth phase of the Industrial Revolution?
Plastics, nuclear, aluminum, electronics, computers, aviation
In the US, when did machine-based industry replace agriculture as the most important activity?
1870
What are two common measures of measuring industrialization?
1) Gross National Product per capita (GNP/cap), or sometimes Gross Domestic Product per capita, 2) Energy Consumption per capita
The increased use of machines results in what during the Industrial Revolution?
Shift from labor-intensive to capital-intensive industries
In the long run, do living standards increase during the Industrial Revolution?
Yes - increased productivity + stable population = tremendous increase in living standards (on average)
What is pauperization?
Impoverishment of the proletariat - Marx thought capitalism would ultimately lead to its own self-destruction
What are two major trends in the economies of industrial societies?
1) shift of the labor force from primary industries to secondary and tertiary industries, 2) increased specialization in all fields
What is the primary sector? Secondary sector? Tertiary sector?
Primary sector = raw materials (agriculture, fishing, forestry, mining)
Secondary sector = manufactured goods (automobiles, CD players)
Tertiary sector = services (education, health care, government)
What are two trends in the size of economic organizations?
1) increase in average size, 2) trend toward industrial monopolies and oligopolies
What is the basic formula for cost per unit produced?
C = VC + FC/N
Why would capital-intensive industries have a tendency to consolidate?
Because capital-intensive means higher FC and therefore greater economies of scale
Why are washing machines, motor vehicles, and malt beverages highly concentrated?
Higher fixed costs
Why are newspapers, fluid milk, fur goods and women's dresses not as highly concentrated?
Lower fixed costs
Industrial societies also have a trend to go from a pure market economy to a what?
Mixed market-command economy (with increased government control and regulation)
What are three flaws of a pure market economy?
1) fails to protect weaker members of society, 2) has a built-in tendency to self-destruct (trend toward industrial concentration and monopolies), 3) cannot provide for any collective needs of society (ex: controlling pollution)
What are three advantages of corporations?
1) Corporation pools capital and spreads risk, 2) corporation is "immortal" as a legal entity, 3) corporation benefits from principle of limited-liability
What type of shift in control has been seen in corporations?
From owners-stockholders to managers and government (gov't through regulation)
Compared with other industrial countries, is the US more or less dependent on foreign trade? Why?
Less dependent because of the variety of resources in the US
What type of countries seem to be most dependent on foreign trade? What type of countires seem least dependent on foreign trade? Why?
Smaller countries are more dependent because of their smaller amounts of natural resources
What are "primary industries"?
They deal with raw materials (agriculture, fishing, etc.)
In the course of industrialization the greatest growth of jobs in the long run occurred in what industrial sector?
Tertiary sector
True/False - Today in the US the labor force employed in agriculture is about 20% to 30% of the total?
False - it's about 10%
True/False - Today in the US union membership is much higher than it was in 1945?
False
What is an oligopoly?
A few firms dominate the market for a good
What is the importance of the concept of "fixed costs"?
Fixed costs are the costs that must be spent before the first good can even be produced - the higher the fixed costs, the more likely that there is to be a concentration in the industry
What industries are most likely to evolve into oligopolies or monopolies?
Those that have high fixed costs
True/False - Large corporations today are increasingly controlled by their stockholders.
False - controlled more by managers and government
True/False - Among industrial societies, countries with large populations tend to be more dependent on imports than countries with small populations?
False - the opposite is true
What are theistic religions?
"Traditional" religions based on belief in God or gods
Where is the trend of growing religious skepticism most prevalent?
In Europe and Japan (this trend is less prevalent in US), especially in Japan (does not have a tradition of Christianity, are Buddhists)
Why are people in the US more religious than in other industrial countries?
Diversity of denominations - there is a free market in religion in the US, and a free market promotes competition among denominations for new members (also, less success for socialism in the US)
What does secular mean?
Not pertaining to religion (as opposed to sacred)
What are a few of the most prominent secular ideologies?
1) Democratic republicanism
2) Capitalism
3) Socialism - democratic
4) Socialism - revoluationary
5) Nationalism
6) Pragmatism
Who is Adam Smith and with what secular ideology is he associated?
Theory of the invisible hand - mechanisms of supply and demand based on individuals or firms pursuing their own self-interest automatically optimizes interest of society as a whole, believed in minimal government interference in the economy, associated with capitalism
What is socialism?
The idea that basic resources of a society should be public property
What is democratic socialism?
The idea that a socialist society can be achieved by democratic means, by "playing by the rules" of electoral laws to elect representatives sympathetic to socialist ideals ("welfare state")
What is revolutionary socialism?
The idea that a socialist society can only be achieved by a violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie - associated with Karl Marx (constitutes the basis of a comprehensive ideology that can "work" just like a religion)
What is nationalism?
Identification with the nation-state (can be combined with other ideologies, example includes national-socialism (nazism) in Germany)
What is pragmatism and with who is it associated?
William James - an empiricist approach to social institutions: keep what works, eliminate what does not
What are some general features of the new secular ideologies?
1) All secular ideologies assume human destiny is subject to human control, 2) Ideology has become an important source of societal variation (has decreased somewhat though), 3) Populations of industrial societies seem to choose a mixture of socialism and capitalism if given a choice
Abraham Lincoln's phrase "government of the people, by the people, and for the people" describes what secular ideology?
Democratic republicanism
The view that society should be ruled with a representative system restricted to a small group of wealthy people corresponds to what secular ideology?
Oligarchical republicanism
According to Adam Smith, governments should stay out of the economy except to _____ ?
Enforcement of contracts and a few other activities that cannot be achieved through free enterprise (such as national defense)
What does Adam Smith mean by the expression "the invisible hand"?
The laws of supply and demand largely regulate themselves without governmental intervention and optimize the interests of society as a whole
What is the most basic difference between capitalism and socialism?
Capitalsim - free enterprise should be promoted (laissez-faire policies)
Socialism - all resources should be public property, lots of government intervention
How does revolutionary socialism differ from democratic socialism?
Revolutionary socialism believes that a socialist society can only be achieved by a violent overthrow of the bourgeoisie, while democratic socialism favors achieving a socialist society through democratic means
Who was the spiritual father of modern pragmatism?
William James
The "welfare state" is especially associated with what secular ideology?
Democratic socialism
On what secular ideology was the Nazi party in Germany based?
Nationalism and socialism
Despite their profound differences, secular ideologies of the industrial era have one common feature which is ____ ?
All believe that human destiny is subject to human control
What are some consequences of industrialization promoting democracy?
1) spread of education and information, 2) growth of mass media and political awareness, 3) urbanization and breakdown of paternalism
What are two types of political parties?
1) brokerage-type parties, 2) ideological parties
Why the relative stability of democratic systems in industrial societies?
1) high standards of living lead to an incentive to maintain the system, 2) democratic ideology and pervasive socialization, 3) structural complexity of industrial society leads to "overlapping cleavages" (means that many people are in the middle-class, or in intermediate economic, political, and social positions)
Why the growth in government?
1) democratic trend - government grows to satisfy public demands for more services, 2) trend toward a mixed economy with substantial government control
True/False - "Equal participation by everyone in political decisions is a common feature of Western democratic societies."
False - instead, representative democracy is a compromise for pure democracy
Where are brokerage-type parties found?
US (parties have weak ideological commitment and exchange favorable legislation for electoral support)
In what kind of industrial societies does social class have the strongest influence on political party preferences?
Where there is not a very pronounced middle-class, very unevenly divided between upper and lower classes
True/False - "Compared to voters in most western European countries, US and Canadian voters are more influenced by economic class considerations."
False
Why is the polity generally more stable in industrial societies than it was in agrarian societies?
Bigger middle class
What are the 4 dimensions of stratification in industrial societies?
1) distribution of income, 2) distribution of wealth, 3) distribution of occupation and occupational mobility, 4) distribution of education
What are the 2 historical trends that have characterized inequality of the distribution of income during industrialization?
1) The Kuznets Curve
2) The Great U-Turn
What is the Kuznets Curve?
Has an inverted U-shape, idea that during industrial development in the long run, income inequality at first rises and then declines, tracing an inverted U-shaped trajectory; as a result, industrial societies are more equal than nonindustrial societies
What is the inverted U-shape of the Kuznets curve due to?
- the expansion of education
- the shift from agriculture to the secondary and tertiary sectors
- the demographic transition
On average, the income distributions of industrial societies are ________ the income distributions of nonindustrial societies?
Less unequal than
The distribution of income in the US, compared to other industrial societies, is _____ ?
More unequal
What is the Great U-Turn?
Idea that since the early 1970s, income inequality has increased in some industrial societies (esp. the US and the UK)
Why would these inequality trends in the Great U-Turn occur?
- deindustrialization caused in part by globalization and internal competition
- increasing reliance on technology causing increased demand for education and cognitive skills
- increasing proportion of female-headed households
How would you describe the trend in income inequality in the US over the past 60 years or so?
1940s-1970ish: egalitarian
1970s-present: greater inequality
Is wealth typically more unequally or equally distributed than income? Why?
Unequally - partly because wealth is greatly associated with age
What is social structure?
Distribution of occupations at different levels of status
What is vertical mobility?
Movements of individuals within a system of stratification
What is upward mobility? What is downward mobility?
Upward mobility - movement corresponds to an increase in status

Downward mobility - movement corresponds to a decrease in status
What is inter-generational mobiility? What is intra-generational mobility?
Inter-generational mobility - movement occurs between generations

Intra-generational mobility - movement occurs within a single generation
What is exchange mobility? What is structural mobility?
Exchange mobility - movement takes place within an unchanging social strucutre

Structural mobility - movement is the result of a changing social structure
What is pure exchange mobility?
People who go up and down in states must do so equally (social structure remains the same)
What is pure structural mobility?
Social structure expands in regards to the upper-class
What kind of mobility has been experienced by families during the 20th century?
Structural mobility due to the expansion of higher status occupations
From an examination of trends in occupational distribution during the 20th century, will later generations (including yours) experience this same amount of upward mobility than earlier ones in the century?
Probably not - many of the upper-class jobs have been established; also, fierce competition
What does the term "vertical mobility" refer to?
Movements of individuals within a system of stratification
How does one call mobility that results from change in the proportion of individuals in various occupational categories?
Structural mobility (?)
What is the main factor generating the great amount of upward mobility in industrial societies during the first half of the 20th century?
The expansion of higher status occupations
Why has industrialization entailed a tremendous expansion of education?
- need for literacy and technical competence
- decline in child labor
Education affects individuals with respect to what?
- their point of entry in a career
- their chances for promotion
- their political influence (through expertise)
What are the 2 basic trends in regards to social inequality in the contemporary World System?
1) WITHIN industrial societies
2) BETWEEN industrial societies and nonindustrial (developing) countries
The long run trend of declining inequality may be attributed to what?
- growing importance of (demand for) human capital
- growing productivity of industrial technology (more advantageous for elites to consent some)
Intercountry income inequality has done 2 things since 1960. What are they?
- increased if each country is viewed as a single income-receiving unit, without taking into account the size of its population
- decreased if countries are weighted by the size of their population
True/False - "In general, considering all aspects of inequality including income, education, political influence, etc., inequality has been declining in industrial societies."
True
How would you describe the trend in intercountry income inequality during the past 40 years or so?
- increased if population is not considered
- decreased if population is considered
What is the demographic transition?
Characterized by first a decline in the death rate followed with a LAG by a decline in birth rate
What is the effect of the lag between the decline in death rate and decline in birth rate?
Produces a period of rapid population growth during the transition
What is the birth and death rates for agrarian societies? For industrial societies?
40 for agrarian, 10 for industrial (birth or deaths per 1,000 population per year)
What role did the demographic transition play in the great improvement in living standards experienced by industrial societies?
Stabilized the population
As a result of the demographic transition, do families in industrial societies have fewer or more children than in the past?
Fewer - this has had a huge effect on the role of women
Are there any functions of the family left?
Yes - having children, support system (emotionally and financially), socialization

Note - the family losing many of its historic functions reflects the general trend toward specialization in industrial societies
Has the divorce rate increased or decreased in industrial societies?
Increased (shows a greater independence of individuals from the family)
Compared to periods of economic prosperity, during an economic depression the divorce rate is ______ ?
Lower
What are some of the contributing factors of the changing role of women in industrial societies?
- declining size of the family
- participation of women in the educational expansion
- increased female labor force participation (outside the home)
- relative earnings disadvantage of females
- increasing female participation in the polity
Among industrial societies, in what country is the greatest income disparity between men and women found?
Japan - many women are in low-paying jobs because they expect to exit from the work force when they marry and have children
Why the income disadvantage of women?
- child-bearing role of women results in a pattern of interrupted employment
- seniority and experience is less than those of men
- women may tend to choose jobs that permit easy exit and reentry
- employers may practice statistical discrimination
What is statistical discrimination?
Treating an individual as the average member of his/her group
True/False - "The most fundamental cause of change in the role of women in industrial societies is the emergence of feminist ideology."
False
How does the US compare to other industrial societies with respect to participation of women in the polity? Why?
Lower percentage because US has a two-party system (harder to get through primaries)
True/False - "Inequality between the sexes in modern industrial societies is less than it has ever been before in human societies."
True
True/False - "Among important causes of the continuing occupational disadvantage of women in industrial societies, sociologists include the lesser capacity of women for leadership."
False
True/False - "The term "statistical discrimination" refers to the undercount of certain groups (such as Hispanic immigrants and homeless people) in population consenses."
False
What are some synonyms and euphemisms for industrializing societies?
- underdeveloped countries
- Third World countries
- LDC (= "less developed countries)
- The South (vs. The North = industrial societies)
- developing countries
When was the period of imperialism?
Mid-1800s to WWI
What is imperialism/colonism?
Toward the end of the 19th century, European powers competed for overseas territories to use as colonies
What a major part of this imperialistic stage called?
Scramble for Africa (UK, France, and other countries involved)
Why was the US relatively less involved in imperialsim during that period than other industrial societies?
- Civil War
- isolationist policy
- territories being taken away were very far away (Africa)
- still had the western frontier in the US to explore
What is the Hobson-Lenin Theory of imperialism?
Idea that the core states will keep trying to seek and acquire new sources of raw materials and new markets (imperialism) which will lead to competition and ultimately war (successfully predicted WWI)
What are core states in the Hobson-Lenin Theory of imperialism?
Industrial societies that are producing manufactured goods
What is the main thesis regarding industrializing agrarian and horticultural societies?
The initial level of development (agrarian vs. horticultural) has profound effects on the fate of industrializing societies
Do industrializing agrarian or horticultural societies have greater government stability?
Industrializing agrarian
Why is there a greater problem with work motivation in industrializing horticultural societies compared to industrializing agrarian societies?
Women did most of the planting and daily work in horticultural societies, therefore men are not used to daily, continuous work (harder to adapt, used to warfare)
Do current levels of development tend to be higher or lower in industrializing horticultural societies when compared to industrializing agrarian societies?
Lower
What is the problem with the populations of many industrializing societies?
In the middle of the demographic transition - therefore, experiencing rapid population growth which they cannot sustain
What are some consequences of rapid popuation growth?
- public education is very expensive: no modern skills: continued dependence on traditional agrarain sector
- crowding of agricultural land: subdividing of land: use of machinery difficult
- poverty of excess population: no useful demand for industrial goods
What are some characteristics of the economies of industrializing societies?
- dualism
- excessive concentration/specialization in production of raw materials
- economy vulnerable to fluctations in the world market for commodities
- in industrializing horticultural societies, traditional work values are poorly suited to industrial economy
What is dualism?
Sharp contrast between traditional and modern sectors of the economy in industrializing countries
The fragility of democratic regimes derived from different causes in industrializing agrarian and horticultural societies. What are these causes?
- traditional governing class inherited from the past opposed to democracy (agrarian)
- internal divisions from tribal loyalties inherited from colonial past (horticultural)
What are stratification systems of industrializing societies characterized by?
- coexistence of traditional aristocracy and modern middle class (esp. agrarian)
- income inequality much greater than in industrial societies
- quality of life lower than in industrial societies (esp. horticultural)
What are the 3 influential perspectives on the plight of industrializing societies?
1) Modernization theory, 2) Dependency theory, 3) Evolutionary theory
What does the modernization theory say?
Problems of industrializing societies are attributed to internal causes (much of US foreign policy is based on modernization theory)
What does the dependency theory say?
A version of Marxian theory in which problems of industrializing societies are attributed to external causes (the World System); problems are viewed as caused by (i.e., the fault of) advanced industrial societies (as in the expression the development of the underdevelopment)
What does the evolutionary theory say?
Problems of industrializing societies are attributed to selective diffusion of elements of industrial technology and the maladjustments that result; emphasizes the importance of rapid population growth in explaining problems of industrializing societies