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95 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
The systematic study of human society
Sociology
A framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
Structural Functional Approach
Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior
Social Structure
The Consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
Social Functions
The recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
Manifest functions
The unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
Latent Functions
Framework for building Theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals.
Symbolic Interaction Approach
What is Max Weber's claim is the basis of the social interaction approach?
People's beliefs and values shape society
Discipline of sociology first developed in what?
Countries experiencing rapid social change
Which term recognized and intended consequences of a social pattern?
Manifest functions
A perspective recognizing the cultural diversity of the US and promoting equal standing for all cultural traditions
Multiculturalism
The ways of thinking, the ways of acting, and the material objects that together form a people's way of life
Culture
A personal disorientation when experiencing an unfamiliar way of life
Cultural Shock
The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
Ethnocentrism
U.S culture holds a strong belief in
Individuality
Judging another culture using the standards of your own culture is an example of what?
Ethnocentrism
Which Theoretical approach focuses on the link between culture and social inequality?
Social-conflict Approach
The production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
Industrialism
What society show greater specialization of work and show increasing levels of social inequality?
Horticultural and Pastoral Societies
What society expand into vast empires and have extreme social inequality?
Agrarian Societies
What society shifts production from heavy machinery making material things to computers and related technology processing information?
Post Industrial Societies
What develops our humanity as well as our particular personalities?
Socialization
A person's fairly consistent patterns of acting, thinking, and feeling?
Personality
What case makes clear that humans depend on others to provide the care and nurture needed not only for physical growth but also for personality to develop?
Anna
This concept is grounded not in biology but in culture. In high-income countries.
Childhood
Social class position affects socialization: Lower-class parents tend to stress_______, and well-to-do parents stress__________.
Obedience; creativity
A system by which a society ranks categories of people in hierarchy
Social Stratification
Lower-prestige jobs that involve mostly manual labor
Blue-Collar occupations
Higher-prestige jobs that involve mostly mental activity
White-Collar occupations
A caste system is social stratification based on
Birth
The wealthiest 20% of people in the US own about how much of the country's privately owned wealth?
85%
In the United States, average income for African American families is what share of average income for non-hispanic white families?
56%
Change in social position during a person's own lifetime is called?
Intragenrational social mobility
What share of the US population was officially counted as poor?
12.6%
The personal traits and social positions that members of a society attach to being female or male
Gender
Comparing fulll-time U.S. workers, women earn ____ as much as men.
77%
In the United States, what share of women work for income?
59%
Socially constructed category of people who share biologically transmitted traits that members of a society consider important
Race
a shared cultural heritage
Ethnicity
Any category of people distinguished by physical or cultural difference that a society sets apart and subordinates
Minority
A rigid and unfair generalization about an entire category of people
Prejudice
Unequal treatment of various categories of people
Discrimination
Race refers to __________ considered important by a society, and ethnicity refers to ________.
Biological traits; cultural traits
A minority is defined as a category of people who
are defined as both different and disadvantaged
Prejudice is a matter of ________, and discrimination is a matter of _______.
attitudes; behavior
The social institution that organizes a society's production, distribution and consumption of goods and services
Economy
A productive system based on service work and high technology
Post Industrial Economy
An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are privately owned
Capitalism
An economic system in which natural resources and the means of producing goods and services are collectively owned
Socialism
A hypothetical economic and political system in which all members of a society are socially equal
Communism
The early textile factories in New England, which marked the start of the Industrial Revolution in the US employed by...
Mostly women who were paid half the wages earned by men
Building houses and making cars are examples of production in which economic secter?
The Secondary Sector
This marks the rise of a postindustrial economy
The development of computer technology
Today what share of the U.S. labor force has industrial jobs?
1/5
A capitalist society's approach to economic "justice" amounts to
Freedom of the Marketplace
Socialist economies differ from capitalist economies in that they
create more economic equality
A social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to care for one another, including children
Family
A family consisting of parents and children as well as other kin; also known as a consanguine family
Extended Family
A family composed of one or two parents and their children; also known as a conjugal family
Nuclear Family
Marriage between people of the same social category
Endogamy
Marriage between people of different social categories
Exogamy
Marriage that unites a person with two or more spouses
Polygamy
Marriage that unites one man and two or more women: Islamic, Middle East and Africa.
Polygyny
Marriage that unites one women and two or more men; Tibet
Polyandry
affection and sexual passion for another person
Romantic Love
Sociologist claim that marriage in the United States follows the principle of homogamy, which means that partners are
People who are socially alike in terms of class, age, and race.
Which theoretical approach states that people select partners who have the same to offer as they do?
The Social exchange Approach
A social institution involving beliefs and practices based on recognizing the sacred
Religion
A type of religious organization that is well integrated into the larger society
Church
Are religious organizations based on new and unconventional beliefs and practices
Cults
A type of Religious organizations that stands apart from the larger society
Sect
Belief based on conviction rather than on scientific evidence
Faith
West have a clear focus on God as a distinct entity
Christianity, Islam, Judaism
Eastern Religions that see divine power in everything..have ethical codes for living.
Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism
Protestant Denominations Percentage in the US
52.7%
Catholic Denomination Percentage in the US
23.3
What term did Emile Durkheim use to refer to the everyday elements of our lives?
Profane
Faith or belief in religious matters, is best described as
Conviction in things unseen
What is not one of the important functions of religion according to Durkheim?
Generating social conflict
The term "secularization" refers to what?
The decline in the importance of religion and the sacred
The social institution for transmitting knowledge and skills, as well as teaching cultural norms and vaules
Education
What percentage of U.S. college students are in community College
40%
What share of U.S. adult population has completed high school?
85%
What percentage have college degrees?
28%
U.S. adults that are overweight
2/3
Poor Nations suffer from what?
Inadequate sanitation, hunger, and other problems linked to poverty
IN the very poorest nations of the world today, a majority of people die before reaching
Their teens
Social epidemiology is the study of
The distribution of health and illness in a population
What is the largest cause of death among young people in the US
Accidents
In the US, which category of people has the highest life expectancy?
White women
The study of human population
Demography
The movement of people into and out of a specified territory
Migration
Which region of the world has both the lowest birth rate and the lowest infant mortality rate?
Europe
Typically, high income nations grow mostly from _________, and low income nations grow from __________.
Immigration; natural increase
In general, the higher the average income of a country,
the slower the population increases