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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
body consciousness
a term that describes how a person perceives and feels about his/her body
"how a person perceives..."
comparable worth
the belief that wages ought to reflect the worth of a job, not the gender or race of the worker
"pay equity"
the belief that all people-both women and men-are equal and that they should be valued equally and have equal rights
the culturally and socially constructed differences between females and males found in the meanings, beliefs, and practices associated with “femininity” and “masculinity”
"femininity" & "masculinity"
gender bias
behavior that shows favoritism toward one gender over the other
gender identity
a person’s perception of the self as female or male
female or male
gender role
the attitudes, behavior, and activities that are socially defined as appropriate for each sex and are learned through the socialization process
"appropriate for each sex"
a person in whom sexual differentiation is ambiguous or incomplete
extreme prejudice directed at gays, lesbians, bisexuals, and others who are perceived as not being heterosexual
"extreme predjudice"
a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by women
"cultural, political, and economic"
a hierarchical system of social organization in which cultural, political, and economic structures are controlled by men
"cultural, political, and economic"
pay gap
a term used to describe the disparity between women’s and men’s earnings
primary sex characteristics
the genitalia used in the reproductive process
secondary sex characteristics
the physical traits (other than reproductive organs) that identify an individual’s sex; such as: a deeper voice, more body hair, and greater height
"physical traits"
the biological and anatomical differences between females and males
"biological and anatomical"
the subordination of one sex, usually female, based on the assumed superiority of the other sex
"subordination, superiority"
sexual orientation
a person’s preference for emotional-sexual relationships with members of the opposite sex (heterosexuality), the same sex (homosexuality), or both (bisexuality)
"hetero-, homo-, bi-"
a person who believes that he or she was born with the body of the wrong sex
"born... wrong"
a male who lives as a woman or a female who lives as a man but does not alter the genitalia
"does not alter..."
gendered institutions
Structures that have been believed to contribute to and perpetuate gender inequality that is outside the individual
neither gender is more dominant because neither sex has the ability to provide all the food necessary for survival
Hunting and Gathering Societies
the sacrificing of a widow upon her husband's death
the division of labor in families and the workplace results from male control of and dominance over women and resources
Conflict Perspective
liberal feminism
The belief that the root of women's oppression lie's in women's lack of equal civil rights and educational opportunities
civil rights & educational oppor.
radical feminism
The belief that male domination causes all forms of human oppression, including racism and classism is called
male domination
socialist feminism
The belief that women's oppression results from their dual roles as paid and unpaid workers in a capitalist economy
dual roles
In postindustrial society more than ________ of adult women are in the workforce
________ is a surgical procedure performed on young girls as a method of sexual control
genital mutilation
characteristics of the gender role of men
strong, rational, dominant, independent, less concerned with appearance
characteristics of the gender role of women
weak, emotional, nurturing, dependent, anxious about appearance
the three factors of the "Gendered Division of Labor"
1.Type of subsistence base
2.Supply of and demand for labor
3.The extent to which women's child-rearing activities are compatible with certain types of work
S, S&D, C-R
Agents of Gender Socialization
Parents/Family-clothing, toys,
household chores
Religion-spirituality & beliefs
Teachers and schools-lectures,
Sports[social institutions]-boys
football (training ground for
girls:cheerleaders, drill team,
homecoming queens
Mass Media-male char.:aggressive,
constructive, direct
female char.: manipulative
division of family labor ensures that important societal tasks will be fulfilled
Functionalist Perspective
neither gender is more dominant because neither sex controls the food supply; BUT, social practices, such as: polygamy and bridewealth, promotes male dominance
Horticultural & Pastoral Societies
Agrarian Societiesgender inequality and male dominance becomes institutionalized, due to the dependence on animal-drawn or mechanically powered plows and equipment
Agrarian Societies
Four practices in agrarian societies that contribute to the subordination of women
1. Purdah
2. Footbinding
3. Suttee
4. Genital mutilation
Purdah[Hindu & Muslims]-
the seclusion of women,
extreme modesty in apparel
& the visible subordination of women
to men (i.e. walking behind men,
speaking only when spoken to,
eating only after men finish their
toes of young girls bent under and
continually bound tighter to the
soles of their feet
extreme pain (as toenails grow into
their feet)
serious infections (due to lack of blood
-a surgical procedure performed on
young girls as a method of sexual
justified: "these procedures ensure the
chastity of women before
marriage, and ensure that they
have no extramarital affairs after
females: maimed or died from
hemorrhage, infection, or other
Genital Mutilation
As societies industrialize, the staus of
women tends to decline further
ex.: "men's work" & "women's work",
and pay differentials
Industrial Societies
Division of labor in paid employment
is increasingly based on whether
people provide or apply info. or
are employed in service jobs such
as fast-food counter help or
health care workers
formal education (for both men &
women) is increasingly crucial for
economic and social success
Postindustrial Societies
the "second shift"
dual responsibilities for paid and unpaid work
"the sandwich generation"
women caught between the needs of their young children and of their elderly relatives
Traditional marriage
where men and women perform traditional jobs based on gender
Transitional marriage
primary gender roles are traditional, but it is O.K. for slight differentiation
Egalitarian marriage
everything chosen without regard to gender