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57 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
any behavior, belief, or condition that significantly differs from social norms of a group or a society.
A powerfully negative label given by society that can radically alter a person's self-concept.
informal norms dealing with etiquette or manners. Deviating from these norms brings short-term, informal sanctioning
ex. personal space, looking in eyes when talking
norms having moral significance. Deviating from these norms is more serious; may bring outcasting. ex.adultry, lying
formal norms that are written down and legally enforced (by the govt.) (formal sanctioning) ex. stealing, killing
(criminal) laws
the practices that groups or societies develop to encourage conformity and discourage deviance.
social control
the systematic study of crime and the criminal justice system, including the police, courts, and prisons.
View that asserts that "deviance is rooted in societal factors," including RAPID SOCIAL CHANGE and SOCIAL DISINTEGRATION
Emile Durkheim's view
What was the revolution that characterized the late 1700s in Europe and the 1800s for both Europe and the US?
A social condition in which norms are weak, absent, or conflicting.
Theory asserts that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals.
Strain Theory (Robert K. Merton)
Theory asserts that people must have access to illegitimate opportunity structures, ie, social circumstances that allow people to acquire through illegitimate means what they cannot through legitimate ones, AND lack of access to legitimate ones.
Opportunity Theory (Richard Cloward & Llyod Ohlin)
In general, these views assert that deviance is learned in the same way that conformity is learned --> via social interaction with significant others. Because it focuses on the individual’s experience in his/her social surroundings, these approaches are MICRO in their scope...
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
Asserts that individuals have a greater tendency to deviate from norms when they associate with people who also deviate.
Differential Association Theory (Edwin Sutherland)
Asserts that an individual is more likely to deviate when her/his social ties are broken or absent.
control theory / social bond theory
Asserts that deviance results from individuals being stigmatized by others.
labeling theory
Conflict perspectives have to do with...
power relations
Asserts that women’s deviance is a rational response to gender discrimination and inequality that women experience in families and the workplace.
Liberal feminist approach
Perspective that asserts information technology increases external social control of some categories of people over others (due to the former’s social statuses and access to information) through the use of surveillance techniques. Also, new crimes b/c of technology….
postmodernist perspective
Is social class an ascribed status or an acieved status?
the hierarchical arrangement of social categories based on their control over basic resources.
social stratification
What are examples of basic resources?
$, houses,...
stratification is based on ascribed statuses
stratification is based on ascribed and achieved statuses
access to important societal resources
life chances
a combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education.
socioeconomic status (SES)
the economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers (governmental aid), and ownership of property.
the total value of an individual’s (or family’s) economic assets (e.g., income, personal property, anything income-producing, stocks, bonds, paintings, jewelry, cars, planes) less debt.
In 2001, the richest 20% of households received almost ___% of the total income
The poorest 20% of all households received less than ___% of all income.
The top 5% alone received ___% of all income -- a sum greater than received by the bottom 40%.
Who are the “super-rich?” (.5% of households) own ____% of the nation’s wealth (avg. = $9 million)
Who are the “very rich?” (.5% of households) own ___% of the nation’s wealth ($1.4 to $2.5 million)
Who are the “rich?” (9% of households) own ___% of the nation’s wealth (avg. = $400,000).
Everyone else? (90% of households) own ___% of the nation’s wealth
Relatively low-paying, nonmanual, semi-skilled positions (primarily held by women, yet sometimes held by men).
Pink-collar occupations aka working class
ex. waitor/waitress, secratary, nurses
Perspectives of Social Inequality in the U. S.
Perspective asserts that inequality is inevitable and necessary for society. “Davis-Moore thesis”
Functionalist Perspectives
Know 5 points of the “Davis-Moore thesis”
(p. 270).
Functionalist Perspective
Theoretical Perspectives of Social Inequality in the U.S.
Perspective asserts that inequality is NOT necessary for society. People with power and wealth “are able to shape and distribute the rewards, resources, privileges, and opportunities in society for their own benefit”
Conflict Perspectives
Theoretical Perspectives of Social Inequality in the U.S.
Perspective focuses on the ways in which inequality is maintained at the micro-level via communication patterns and power/deference behavior (i.e., verbal & nonverbal communication, e.g., clothing, body positions, facial expression, eye contact, touching, personal space).
Symbolic Interactionist Perspectives
a social category distinguished by socially-selected biological traits.
What are examples of “socially selected” biological traits?
skin tone, skin color, hair texture, eye and hair color
A social category distinguished (by others or by themselves) by subcultural and/or nationality traits. 
A social position that is relatively disadvantaged in terms of life chances, e.g., blocked opportunities to political influence, economic participation, rights.
a social position that is relatively advantaged in terms of life chances, e.g., influence politically, economic participation, rights.
Majority status
a negative attitude based on faulty generalizations about members of selected social categories, e.g., race, ethnicity, age, ability.
Overgeneralizations about appearance, behavior, or other traits of members of social categories.
the practice of treating people unequally
one-on-one unequal treatment.
individual discrimination
When unequal treatment of people is embedded into social organizations and institutions
(e.g., residentially by real estate industry, auto industry, dating, workplace, military).
institutional discrimination
Prejudice and discrimination based on race.
the spatial and social separation of social categories (e.g., race, ethnicity, ability-level, social class, gender, religion).
the process by which members of minority races and ethnicities become absorbed into the dominant culture.
when members of a racial or ethnic minority adopt aspects of dominant culture, e.g., language, dress, values, religion, and food.
Cultural assimilation (a.k.a., acculturation)
when members of a racial or ethnic minority gain acceptance into everyday social interaction with members of the majority race or ethnicity (e.g., in the workplace, in friendship, social clubs).
Structural assimilation (a.k.a. integration)
when members of one race or ethnicity marry members of another race or ethnicity.
Biological assimilation (a.k.a. amalgamation)
An individual person’s change in racial or ethnic self-identification.
Psychological Assimilation