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65 Cards in this Set

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The lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in a society is called:
socialization
a force that means genetics
nature
a force that means social environment
ex. parenting styles
nurture
Which is most common physical injury, sexual abuse, and neglect?
neglect
On an individual basis, we study it ______-scopically. Focus: How is a person socialized?
micro
If we study patterns of socialization within a society or across societies, socialization can be analyzed ______-scopically. Focus: How are many people socialized?
macro
Charles Horton Cooley’s term for the way in which a person’s sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others.
looking-glass self
Who said that "Selves can only exist in definite relations to other selves. No hand-and-fast line can be drawn between our own selves and the selves of others."
George Herbert Mead
Stage of self-development?
birth - 3 yrs. Children imitate those around them; interactions lack meaning.
prepratory stage
Stage of self-development?
3 - 5/6 yrs. Use of symols allows children to pretend they are another person; they learn to take the role of a SPECIFIC, significant other, and thereby begin to see themselves from another's view. Children learn their social position or status in relation to others.
play stage
Stage of self-development?
6/7 yrs. - life. Children...
learn rules of various social settings, learn rules of larger society, learn to take roles of many others at one time, and develop the generalized other.
game stage
George Herbert Mead’s term for the child’s awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of the child’s subculture.
*the awareness of subculture and cultural expectations
generalized other
Do traditional, modern, or postmodern societies view children as having qualitative different needs?
postmodern
Comparing traditional versus modern & postmodern societies, in which type does adolescence last much longer?
modern & postmodern
Adulthood begins sooner in traditional societies. Why?
because of economic necessity
the process of learning a new and different set of attitudes, values, and behaviors from those in one’s background and experience.
resocialization
social arrangements in which people are isolated from the rest of society for a set period of time and are strictly supervised
total institutions
The process by which people act toward or respond to other people.
social interaction
Any relatively stable pattern of social behavior (including the norms/rules guiding this behavior)
social structure
Social _________ helps us to know what we are supposed to do (rules and direction are provided everyday). Social structure helps provide limits on our behavior - and keep social phenomena happening in a predictable manner (relatively).
Social structure
When a person is partly in the larger structure of society and partly out of this larger structure - based on the status(es) he or she currently occupies - we call this phenomenon?
social marginality
a socially-defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties
status
A social position conferred at birth or received involuntarity, based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control.
ascribed status
A social position that as individual assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.
achieved status
a material sign that informs others of a person’s specific status.
status symbols
a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status. (sometimes called a "role set")
role
all of the statuses that an individual occupies at a given.
status set
when incompatable role demands are placed on an individual by two or more statuses (held at the same time)
role conflict
when incompatable role demands are placed on an individual by a single status. ex. weddings
role strain
The process of disengaging from a social role that was central to one's identity. ex. getting fired or loosing a child
role exit
The 3 outcomes of role conflict, role strain, and role exit are...
social-psychological
a large-scale social structure designed to meet society's needs
social institution
the process by which our perception of reality is shaped largely by the subjective meaning that we give to an experience.
social construction of reality
the study of social interaction that compares everyday life to a theatrical presentation.
dramaturgical analysis
Who came up with the dramaturgical analysis?
Goffman
the process of conveying a favorable image of ourselves.
Impression management (presentation of self)
the strategies we use to rescue our performance when we experience a potential or actual "loss of face"
face-saving behaviors
Who has more leeway the person occupying the position of power or the one occupying the position of less power?
occupying the position of power
two or more people who interact and identify with each other
(social) group
Ex. friendship, religious, class
A collection of people who happen to be at the same place at the same time (but share little else in common). Aka a crowd
(social) aggregate
Ex. concert, line at grocery store
What can transform an aggregate into a group in minutes?
a crisis
Ex. plane hijacked, natural disater and connection with neighbors
People who share some trait (characteristic).
social category
Ex. all students of GPC, age category, social security recipiants, male teachers, race
a group's ability to maintain itself in the face of obstacles.
social solidarity or social cohesion
If we distinguish between different kinds or types of groups, they typically differ in regard to the...
degree of social solidarity
A group (or category) that strongly influences an individual's behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member.
Reference group
(a comparison group)
Ex. when you are born into the lower class and the upper clas inspires you
a web of social relationships that links one person directly to other people and, through them, to even more people.
A network
Who wrote "The strength of weak ties?"
Mark Granovetter
This person theorized that the size of groups affects the quality of interaction in them.
Georg Simmel
When do coalitions become possible?
when there are 3 or more people
What happens as groups become larger?
become emotionally unstable, gain more power, social stability increases
_________ perspectives: Assert that people form groups to meet "instrumental" and "expressive" needs.
Functionalist
According to Cooley, which kind of group typically meets our expressive needs?
primary
What are the two kinds of social groups?
primary and secondary
According to Cooley, which kind of group typically meets our instumental needs?
secondary
________ perspectives: {Agree with functionalists that groups provide functions.} Yet, assert that groups ALSO involve power relationships whereby the needs of individual members may NOT be equally served.
Conflict
Whose needs are served, according to CONFLICT perspectives?
the ones in the higher positions
________ perspectives: Assert that group members work together to socially construct reality (via symbols) which affect interpersonal behavior and attitudes within groups. Also, assert that group size affects group dynamics.
symbolic-interactionist
________ perspectives: Assert that groups and organizations in postmodern life are characterized by superficiality and meaninglessness in their social relations.
postmodern
Stanley Milgram's OBEDIENCE research Findings? (What % went all the way to fatal shock levels?)
65%
the process by which members of a cohesive group arrive at a decision that many individual members privately believe is unwise.
groupthink
Ex. any jury situation, Congress
Who predicted the prevalence of bereaucracies in modern life?
Max Weber
Solomon Asch's CONFORMITY research Findings? (What % conformed?)
33%
An organizational model characterized by a hierarchy of authority, a clear division of labor, explicit rules & procedures, and impersonality in personal matters.
bureaucracy
Ex. military
What are the 5 ideal characteristics of Bureaucracy?
division of labor, hierarchy of authority, rules and regulations, employment based on technical qualification, and impersonality.
What are the 3 shortcomings of Bureaucracies?
inefficiency and rigidity, resistance to change, and perpetuation of race, class, and gender inequalities.