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26 Cards in this Set

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How has specialization in health care depersonalized the practice of medicine?
Medical science depersonalized the practice of medicine.The old days of house call and doctors keeping up with their patients was lost in the 20th century.
What is the biggest social problem in medicine?
Unequal healthcare delivery system
Approximately how many Americans do not have health insurance?
Over 44 million Americans do not have health insurance.
In the U.S. health plan coverage or insurance is based on what?
Job based
What are some consequences and costs to society in relation to the unequal health-care delivery system ?
Consequences:
Uninsured Americans are less likely to seek medical help until their illness has progressed to a serious state

Costs to Society:
Hospitals, clinics, and doctors cannot absorb uncompensated costs
When uninsured go to a public hospital, clinic, or physician for care and are unable to pay full cost, bill is passed on to those who do through taxes
The health care system is a business designed to make what?
PROFIT.
Does the AMA allow doctors to advertise? How do doctors keep fees comparable among physicians?
NO.. AMA forbids advertisment

Highly effective informal network uses peer pressure to keep fees comparable among physicians
What is the most lucrative small business in the U.S. ?
Private medical practice is the most lucrative small business in the country: average physician earns 7 times as much as the average American.
Privately owned hospitals embrace what type of business mentality?
For profit chains. Hospitals compete with each other over which has the most prestigioous high cost eqiupment.
How do struggling hospitals stay afloat, meet overhead expenses?
They either merge with hospital change or forge links with each other to systematize their purchases and reduce costs
Most American workers have medical insurance only as long as they continue to do what?
Work. If they are laid off or fired, they and their families lose their medical coverage
In what way did government health assistance programs create a new social problem?
It raised physicians income by and average of $7,000 and no increase in amount of quality of health care
How does the new system operate in reference to medical insurance?
Hospitals that exeed their dollar limit must cover the extra expenses themselves, but hospitals that maintain lower charges can pocket the difference. This pressures doctors to prescibe only necessary care.
Why do corportations favor health maintenance organizations for their employees?
Favor it due to cost savings
What is the major problem with HMOS and HMO doctors?
HMO doctors receive financial incentives to keep costs down, resulting in fewer diagnostic test.
What is one of the most common surgical procedures for unwanted pregnancies?
Abortion
What did the 1991 Patient Self-Determination Act state?
requires hospitals to inform incoming patients about "living wills" and to offer them assistance in completing one.
State laws hold which individual responsible for maintaing life?
Physician
What do health experts stress in reference to AIDS and its treatment?
Experts emphasize behavior modification to prevent spreading the disease (safer-sex practices; no sharing of needles)
Who is more likely to experience a depressive disorder in the U.S., men or women?
Women. Twice as many women as men experience a depressive disorder each year.
Who has a higher hopitalization rate for mental disorders in the U.S., men or women?
Men experience a much higher hospitalization rate for mental disorders in all marital status groups
How does marital status affect the likelihood of treatment or rate of mental disorders ?
Married people have lower rates of treatment and hospitalization. both men and women.
Functionalist Viewpoint on Healthcare
Problems result in rapid social change and public attitudes.

Argue that system is correcting itself through the evolution of lower costs outpatient clinics, managed care plans, and cost control on third party payments.
Conflict viewpoint on healthcare
problems surrounding health-care delivery system is the result of the domination of the rich and powerful

Physicians want to maximize their incomes- offices and superior private medical facilities are disproportionately located in urban/suburban areas where affluent and influential live


Also emphasize stress and anxiety produced by our economic system as a source of mental illness
Feminist viewpoint on healthcare
focuses on the impact of oppression and the politics of domination

Minimizes hierarchy and situates the individual’s experience in societal context

Question if HMO doctors deny coverage and treatment
Interactionist viewpoint on healthcare
emphasize means by which people communicate, define, and alter the social reality of illness


Whether a person is considered healthy or ill depends on how others define that person and the person’s resulting self-concept

Erving Goffman worked as a hospital aide for a mental hospital and found Atmosphere of mental institution worsened people’s mental problems