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20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a biological concept determined on the basis of primary sex characteristics.
Primary sex characteristics
the anatomical traits essential to reproduction
a broad term used by the medical profession to classify people with some mixture of male and female biological characteristics.
people whose primary sex characteristics do not match the sex they perceive and know themselves to be.
secondary sex characteristics
physical traits not essential to reproduction (breast development, quality of voice, distribution of facial and body hair, and skeletal form) that result from the action of so-called make (androgen) and female (estrogen) hormones.
a social distinction based on culturally conceived and learned ideas about appropriate appearance, behavior, and mental or emotional characteristics for males and females.
the physical, bahvioral, and mental or emotional traits believed to be characteristic of males.
the physical, bahavioral, and mental or emotional traits believed to be characteristic of females.
Gender polarization
Organizing of social life around the male--female distinction so that people's sex is connected to virtually every other aspect of human experience.
a term describing decisions that are influenced by a society's polarized definitions of masculinity and femininity rather than by criteria such as self-fulfillment, interest, ability, or personal comfort.
Social emotions
internal bodily sensations experienced in relationships with other people.
mechanisms of perpetuating gender ideals
-situational contraints
-commercialization of gender ideals
-a learning process that continues throughout life
-a process of developing human capacities, acquiring a personality and identity, internalizing norms, values, beliefs, and language.
Indirect socialization
children learn gender expectations by observing others' behavior.
-rections that significant others show to those who violate gender expectations
-portayals of men and women in magazines, books, and television
Direct socialization
when significant others intentionally convey societal expectations to children.
Aspirational Dolls
-A doll considered to be a role model for a child
Commercialization of gender ideals
Introduction of products into the market using advertising and sales campaigns that draw upon socially constructed standards with regard to masculinity and femininity.
Commercial methods
-creating new products that consumers need to buy
-improving on existing products
-creating new markets
Structural constraints
the established and customary rules, policies, and day-to-day practices that affect a person's life chances.
Sexist ideology
1. people can be classified into two catgories; male and female.
2. A close correspondence exists between a persons primary sex characteristics and characteristics such as emotional activity, body language, personality, intelligence, the expression of sexual desire, and athletic capability.
3. Primary sex characteristics explain and determine behavior and the social, economic, and politcal inequalities that exist between the sexes.
4. People who behave in ways that depart from ideals of masculinity or femininity are considered deviant and subject to negative sanctions.