Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

171 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
August Comte
Coined the term sociology
C Wright Mills
Coined term Sociological imagination-link between personal and social self
Study of human society and social interaction
From Agri based to Manufacturing based economy
Movement of population from rural to city areas
Emile Durkheim
Study of suicide
society provides little moral or social guidance
Sociological Perspective
being able to see the general in the particular-like understanding the link between personal experience with society in which we live
Functionalist Perspective
society as a relatively stable and orderly system composed of interdependant and interrelated parts
Robert Merton
Functionalist who discerned between manifest and latent functions
Karl Marx
Founded conflict perspective dividing society into the bourgeoisie and proleteriat
Manifest Function
Intended, expected or overly recognized consequences of an activity or institution
Latent Function
Consequencies that are largely unintended and unrecognized
Social Dysfunctions
Undersirable consequences of a institution or activity for the social system
Capitalist Class
Working Class
Charles Horton Cooley
Symbolic-interactionist who believed in the I and Me components of self.
Erving Goffman
Symbolic interactionist-used dramatical analysis-people are like actors playing out roles.
George Herbert Mead
Symbolic-interactionist who developed concept of looking glass self
Robert Merton
Functionalist who discerned between manifest and latent functions
Macro Level
Examine social institutions and large scale social process
Micro Level
Focus on meanings of face to fact interactions between people and small groups
Concept whose value changes from case to case
Dependent Variable
Variable of interest or Outcome Variable-variable whose value depends upon or is caused by another variable
Independent Variable
Predictor or Explanatory
Variable-causes or produces changes in another variable
Statement of expected relationship between tow or more variables
variable means to specify how the variable is to be measured
consistency over time
Group of people to whom results apply
Process of selecting a subgroup from the population of interest
population of subgroup which researcher collects data
Random Sampling
each member of population has same chance of being selected
when 2 or more variables change value together
Positive Correlation
when 2 or more variables in majority of cases change together in same direction
Perfect Positive Correlation
When both variables change together in same direction in every case
Negative Correlation
In majority of cases one variable changes in one direction while the other changes in different direction
Perfect Negative Correlation
In every case one variable increases while one variable decreases
Correlation of Zero
Half of cases increase and half of cases decrease
Cause & Effect
When one variable brings about change in another variable
Methods of Sociological Research
Field Research
Secondary analysis of existy data
Question or interview where ask to respond to series of questions
Carelfully designed and controlled attempts
Field Research
study of social life in natural setting
Participant Observation
where researcher observes while joining
Secondary Analysis of Existing Data
Researchers use of data collected by previous research
Deductive Model
Starts with general theory or hypothesis and then collection of data to prove theory or hypothesis
Inductive Model
Starts with specific observation and then explains the observation and the meaning
Values, ideas, beliefs, behaviors, language and material objects passed from one generation to the next.
Material Culture
Tangible objects that members of society use, share and create.
Nonmaterial Culture
Intangible parts of a society that shape peoples behavior.
Cultural Universals
Customs, traits and behaviors that occur in every culture.
Anything that carries a specific meaning recognized by people in the same culture.
set of symbols that allows people to think and communicate
standards about what is right or wrong, desirable or undesirable and good or bad
List Values
Freedom, Progress, Individualism, Material Comfort, Success, Science, Democracy, Health, Education, Privacy, Efficiency, Racism, Hard Work, Equality
Value Conflicts
when these attributes clash with one another
specific rules that shape behavior
Prescriptive Norms
How someone should act in a specific situation
what is considered to be polite behavior
guidelines for moral significance that carry serious consequences if violated
Formal norms created by society's political authority-punishable if violated
Cultural Diversity
range of cultural differences found in and between societies
group of people possess some cultural pattern that distinguish them from larger society. Exp-deadheads
group that rejects norms and values of dominant culture.
Popular Culture
patterns that are widespread in middle and working class society
High Culture
patterns that distinguish society's elite
Culture Shock
disorientation people feel when exposed to a culture other than their own
Cultural Relativism
Where practices and customs of any culture are analyzed by their own standards
Functionalist Perspective
Culture and especially popular culture form the glue that holds a society together
Conflict Perspective
Most powerful groups use their power to maintain and enlarge priveledge
System of ideas and beliefs
Symbolic Interactionist Perspective
Micro level culture is created, maintained and changed through everyday interactions of people in society
part of personality that represents basic biological needs and demand instant gratification
lifelong process through which people learn their culture and develop their potential
Sigmund Freud
founder of psychoanalytic perspective-mind was divided into 3 parts-id, ego and superego
Channels the desires of the id
Funcions as conscience-telling you how you ought to behave
Jean Piaget
Human Cognition-how people think
Jean Piaget - 4 stages of human cognition
Sensorimotor Stage-birth-2yr
Preoperational Stage-2-7yrs
Concrete Operational Stage-7-11yrs
Formal Operational Stage-11-adolescence
Lawrence Kohlberg
Studied moral development of children.
Preconventional Level
Child gives little thought to views of others.
Convention Level
Age 10-adult - beging to evaluate behavior as right or wrong
Postcoventional Level
Final stage of moral development-evaluat in terms of abstract ethical principles that transend rules and law.
Carol Gilligan
Examined moral development of girls. Believed boys and girls had differnt bases for determineing right & wrong because they were raised differntly.
Justice Perspective
Boys rely upon formal rules and laws to determine what is right and wrong-Carol Gilligan
Care & Responsibility Perspective
Actions judged on the basis of personal relationships and loyalties-Carol Gilligan
George Herbert Mead
Studied the sense of self.
Protion of individual's personality composed of self-image and self-awareness.
Significant Others
People whose aproval and consern are desired.
Subjective, spontanious and unique element of self.
objective element of self-consisting of internalized attitudes and demands
George Herbert Mead Self Development Stages
Preparatory-up to age 3-imitate world around them.
Play-kids use language & symbols.
Game-take into account role of other people
Agents of Socialization
Family-1st initial socialization.
Peer Group-people with simular ages, interest.
Schools-imp. role in socialization
Mass Media-exposes us to current events & viewpoints
Differential Socialization
Members of the same society raised differently based on roles they are expected to perform.
Gender Socialization
Socialization that conveys certain message on what it means to be male or female in society.
Ethnic Socialization
Process that transmits messages on status of one ethnic group compared to others.
Anticipatory Socialization
Social learning that is directed toward occupying a new position and the behavior expected in that position.
Learning a different set of values, norms and attitudes.
Involuntary Resocialization
Occurs against the will of the person.
Total Institution
Enviroment where people are isolated from the rest of society.
Social Structure
Stable pattern of relationships in a society.
Social Interaction
Process by which people act and react toward other people.
Socially defined position
Status Set
All the statuses a person occupies at a certain time.
Ascribed Status
Social status inherited at birth or involuntarily aquired later in life.
Achieved Status
Status aquired as a result of your own choice.
Master Status
Special importance in shaping a person identity.
Set of behavioral expectations attached to a status.
Role Expectation
Societys expectation of how a role should be performed.
Role Performance
How you perform your role.
Role Set
Differnt roles that are attached to specific status.
Role Strain
Tension among roles.
Role Conflict
Conflict between roles of 2 or more statuses.
Role Exit
When one disengages from a social role.
Where society provides little behavioral or moral guidance to a person.
Social Construction of Reality
Where persons interpretation of event shapes their perception of reality.
The Thomas Theorem
Situations that are defined as real are real in their consequences.
Self-Fulfilling Prophecy
False belief, perception or prediction that produces behavior that makes the orginally false belief come true.
Study of common-sense knowledge.
Harold Garfinkel
Ethnomethodologist who theorized that social interaction is based on assumptions of shared expectancies.
Dramaturgical Analysis
Study of everyday social interactions in dramatical terms.
Social Network
Web of social ties with a society or group.
Presentation of Self
Manipulation of ones role to leave a particular impression.
Nonverbal Communication
Facial expressions, body movements and gestures.
Social Group
2 or more people engaged in a interaction and identify with each other.
Collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time.
Primary Group
Small group who interact frequently with each other.
Mechanical Solidarity
Social bonds of preindustiral societies where people unite because of the shared values in labor.
Collective Conscience
Set of beliefs that are common to a society.
Organic Solidarity
Social bonds of industrial societies that are based upon specialization and interdependence.
Ferdinand Tonnies
Used terms gemeinschaft and gesellschaft to differntiate between social relationships in preindustiral and industrial societies.
Social relationships are based on bonds of friedship in preindustrial society.
Large impersonal urban society.
Group of 2 or more people
Group of 3 members.
In Group
Group that commands loyalty
Out Group
Group tha is scorned feels opposition.
Reference Group
Group taken as frame of reference to make evaluations and decisions.
Instrumental Leadership
Goal Directed leadership
Expressive Leadership
Concerned with well being of group.
Authoritarian Leaders
Make major decisions
Democratic Leaders
More expressive and encourage group involvement
Laissez-Faire Leaders
Maintain minimal involvement in decisions.
Stanley Milgram
Found people are willing to follow directions and even inflict harm if told to do so.
Tendency of group to conform to a decision even though some think wrong.
Formal Organization
Large, hightly structured groups organized to achieve specific goals.
Normative Organization
Volutary associations
Coercive Organizations
People involuntarily become members.
Utilitarian Organizations
Joined voluntarily in search of a goal.
Organization characterized by division of labor.
Max Weber
Identified 5 key components for bureaucratic organizations. Believed bureaucracy is important for capatalist society.
Webers 5 key components
Specialization of Task
Hierachy of Offices
Written rules
Technical Competence
Robert Merton
Noted societies have approved goals that members are encouraged to strive for.
Strain Theory
People experience strain when they are unable to achieve their goals through approved means.
Cloward & Ohlin
Ability to engage in deviance depends upon the availability to do so.
Travis Hirschi
Control Theory as a way to help understand that factors constrain people from choosing deviant behavior.
Control Theory
People conform to norms when have strong bonds and more likely to engage in crime when social bonds weak.
Differential Association Theory
We learn deviance from people we associate with.
Labeling Theory
Deviants are those people who have been labeled deviant.
Primary Deviance
1st act of deviance for which one receives the label of deviant.
Secondary Deviance
second attempt when people accept label and commit more crimes.
Conflict Perspective
Emphasizes the role of people in positions of power in defining deviance and punishing deviants.
Liberal Views
Views women's deviance as a rational response to gender discrimmination.
Radical Feminism
Sees crime by women as a response to patriachal subordination of women.
Socialist Feminism
Sees womens deviance as resulting from the effects of patriarchy and capatilism.
Social Control
Involves collective efforts to ensure conformity to group.
Informal Social Control
Most common form of social control.

Exp. Snickering, ridicule, shaming
Formal Social Control
The police, courts, ect
Conventional Crime
Street crime
White Collar Crime
Violation of trust in workplace
Corporate Crime
Illegal activities in corporation.