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42 Cards in this Set

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The situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or are no longer applicable.
anomie
A large scale organization of professional criminals that controls some vice or business through violence or the threat of violence.
crime syndicate
Explains deviance as a natural occurrence
control theory
The process of legal negotiation that allows an individual to plead guilty to a lesser charge in return for a lighter sentence
plea bargaining
Behavior that violates significant social norms
deviance
Nonconformity that goes undetected by those in authority
primary deviance
The frequency and closeness of associations a person has with deviant and nondeviant individuals
differential association
a mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society
stigma
the process of labeling and individual as deviant which is usually performed in some type of public setting in which the individual is found guilty, denounced, and given the new identity of deviant
degradation ceremony
the practice that assumes that nonwhite americans are more likely to commit crimes than white americans
racial profiling
the considerable power that the police have to decide who is actually arrested
police discretion
the explanation of deviance as a learned behavior
cultural transmission theory
Behavior that violates significant social norms is called
deviant
Deviance viewed as the natural outgrowth of values, norms, and structure of society
A) is known as the strain theory.
B) was developed by Robert K. Merton
C) is the major functionalist explanation
D) all of the above.
D
The concepts of culturally approved goals and the legitimate means of achieving these goals was devised by
Robert K. Merton
Of the five modes of adaptation, _____ is not a deviant response.
conformity
Conflict theorists believe that
A) Social life is a struggle between those who posses that those who do not
B) people with power commit deviant acts to maintain their position
C) the ruling class labels any behavior that threatens their power base as a deviant
D) all of the above
D
The control theorist Travis Hirschi argued that
The development of strong social bonds leads to lower rates of deviance.
____ suggested that conformity is the result of self-control
Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson
______ explains deviance as a learned behavior
Cultural transmission theory
The juvenile justice system is made up of
A) offenders younger than 18 years of age
B) less specific laws for juvenile offenses
C) both a and b
D) neither a or b
C
T/F Providing law enforcement jobs is a positive function of deviance
true
T/F The functionalist perspective views deviance as an unnatural part of society
false
T/F The conflict perspective explains deviance in terms of power and inequality.
true
T/F The interactionist perspective looks at how the interaction between individuals influence deviance.
True
Strain theory views deviance as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society.
true
conformity is the acceptance of culturally approved goals and the means for achieving these goals.
true
people who use innovation do not accept the cultural goals of their society but do accept the approved means for achieving these goals.
false
innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion employ deviant behavior
true
people with power commit deviant acts to obtain economic rewards
false
the stronger the commitment to a community, th less likely people are to engage in deviant behavior
true
socialization does not determine a person's level of self-control
false
differential association refers to the frequency and closeness of associations a person has with deviant and nondeviant individuals
true
cultural transmission theory views all individuals as conformists
true
primary deviance is nonconformity that is detected by those in authority
false
the results of an individual being labeled as deviant and accepting the label as true are referred to as secondary deviance
true
any act that is labeled as such by those in authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government is called a crime
true
white collar crime is described as offenses committed by individuals of high social status in the course of their professional lives
true
racial profiling is most likely to happen to white americans
false
The rate of recidivism is an indication of whether or not corrections is working
true
police discretion is used when deciding who will be arrested
true
the FBI organizes the crimes reported in the UCR into 29 offense classifications
true