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42 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The situation that arises when the norms of society are unclear or are no longer applicable.
A large scale organization of professional criminals that controls some vice or business through violence or the threat of violence.
crime syndicate
Explains deviance as a natural occurrence
control theory
The process of legal negotiation that allows an individual to plead guilty to a lesser charge in return for a lighter sentence
plea bargaining
Behavior that violates significant social norms
Nonconformity that goes undetected by those in authority
primary deviance
The frequency and closeness of associations a person has with deviant and nondeviant individuals
differential association
a mark of social disgrace that sets the deviant apart from the rest of society
the process of labeling and individual as deviant which is usually performed in some type of public setting in which the individual is found guilty, denounced, and given the new identity of deviant
degradation ceremony
the practice that assumes that nonwhite americans are more likely to commit crimes than white americans
racial profiling
the considerable power that the police have to decide who is actually arrested
police discretion
the explanation of deviance as a learned behavior
cultural transmission theory
Behavior that violates significant social norms is called
Deviance viewed as the natural outgrowth of values, norms, and structure of society
A) is known as the strain theory.
B) was developed by Robert K. Merton
C) is the major functionalist explanation
D) all of the above.
The concepts of culturally approved goals and the legitimate means of achieving these goals was devised by
Robert K. Merton
Of the five modes of adaptation, _____ is not a deviant response.
Conflict theorists believe that
A) Social life is a struggle between those who posses that those who do not
B) people with power commit deviant acts to maintain their position
C) the ruling class labels any behavior that threatens their power base as a deviant
D) all of the above
The control theorist Travis Hirschi argued that
The development of strong social bonds leads to lower rates of deviance.
____ suggested that conformity is the result of self-control
Travis Hirschi and Michael Gottfredson
______ explains deviance as a learned behavior
Cultural transmission theory
The juvenile justice system is made up of
A) offenders younger than 18 years of age
B) less specific laws for juvenile offenses
C) both a and b
D) neither a or b
T/F Providing law enforcement jobs is a positive function of deviance
T/F The functionalist perspective views deviance as an unnatural part of society
T/F The conflict perspective explains deviance in terms of power and inequality.
T/F The interactionist perspective looks at how the interaction between individuals influence deviance.
Strain theory views deviance as the natural outgrowth of the values, norms, and structure of society.
conformity is the acceptance of culturally approved goals and the means for achieving these goals.
people who use innovation do not accept the cultural goals of their society but do accept the approved means for achieving these goals.
innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion employ deviant behavior
people with power commit deviant acts to obtain economic rewards
the stronger the commitment to a community, th less likely people are to engage in deviant behavior
socialization does not determine a person's level of self-control
differential association refers to the frequency and closeness of associations a person has with deviant and nondeviant individuals
cultural transmission theory views all individuals as conformists
primary deviance is nonconformity that is detected by those in authority
the results of an individual being labeled as deviant and accepting the label as true are referred to as secondary deviance
any act that is labeled as such by those in authority, is prohibited by law, and is punishable by the government is called a crime
white collar crime is described as offenses committed by individuals of high social status in the course of their professional lives
racial profiling is most likely to happen to white americans
The rate of recidivism is an indication of whether or not corrections is working
police discretion is used when deciding who will be arrested
the FBI organizes the crimes reported in the UCR into 29 offense classifications