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17 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The violation of rules/norms
Not the act itself, but the reactions to the act
Norms make social life possible, bring about social order
_________ is relative
the violation of norms that have been written into law
_______ in the streets against the person (8.5%)

Murder, aggravated assault, rape

Murder rate is climbing

Most murders committed by persons acquainted w/ their victims
Disproportionately high among young, lower status, ___________ males
Offenders have ____ charac. as victims
Crime in the streets against property (91.5%)
Robbery, burglary, motor vehicle theft

Robbery disproportionately high among young, lower status, non-white males

Majority of robberies committed by strangers
Professional robbers
Addict robbers
Opportunist robbers
Alcoholic robbers
What are the 4 different types of robbers?
Upper class
Which class doesn't commit robbery?

They bribe, misrepresent products, embezzle, and defraud the IRS
charac. that discredit people
Norms of ability
Norms of appearance
Involuntary membership
Becomes master status
Symbolic interactionist perspective
Differential association theory
Control theory
Labeling theory
Differential association theory
We learn to deviate/conform to society’s norms mostly by the different groups we assoc. with
Friends, neighborhoods, subcultures
Control theory
2 control systems work against our motivations to deviate
Inner controls
Outer controls
The stronger our bonds w/ society, the more effective our inner controls
Bonds based on attachments, commitments, involvements, and beliefs
Labeling theory
The labels that people are given affect their own and others’ perceptions of them, leading to conformity or deviance
5 techniques of neutralization
Denial of responsibility
Denial of injury
Denial of a victim
Condemnation of the condemners
Appeal to higher loyalties
The power of labels- The Saints and the Roughnecks
Functionalist perspective
Deviance, including crime, is functional for society (contributes to the social order)
Clarifies moral boundaries, affirms norms
Promotes social unity
Promotes social change

Strain theory

Conflict perspective

Social class and crime
Street crime and the poor
Illegitimate opportunity structures
White collar crime and the upper classes
Illegitimate opportunity structures also
Strain theory
Stive to reach cultural goals
Experience strain (frustration)
Feel anomie
Conform or deviant paths
Conflict perspective
Inconsistency of the criminal justice system
Capitalist class vs. working class
Law as instrument of oppression
Reactions to deviance
Over 2 million are incarcerated
94% of prisoners are men
Almost ½ of prisoners are African American
3 strikes law (3 felonies)
High recidivism rate
The death penalty bias
Police discretion and social class
Internal corruption
Selective enforcement or non enforcement of laws
Active criminality
Bribery and extortion