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150 Cards in this Set

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What is sociology commonly confused with?
social work, socialism (governing philosophy that pushes centralized management), statistics (it is the interpretation of these), therapy
value-neutral
doesn't side with one side or the other
Sociology
a discipline (language) given to systematically understanding society
Society
a population that's prganized to carry out the major functions of life
Weltenshaung
a world view
Who was Wright Mills, what did he write, and what was his main idea?
Marxist/Socialist who wrote "The Sociological Imagination". said that personal troubles and public issues are not the same
What were Peter Berger's three ideas?
Debunking, unrespectability, and relativization
Debunking
going beyond conventional wisdom ("things are not what they seem")
Unrespectability
everything is worthy of study (not seeking to validate)
Relativization
mobility of mind ("what if life was different?")
What was Andre Guery associated with?
Moral statistics (crime in France)
What did Emile Durkheim write and when?
Suicide, in 1897
Who first coined the term "sociologist"?
Emile Durkheim
Sociology is the study of _______
social facts
What are the two types of social facts?
external and coercive
What is sociology commonly confused with?
social work, socialism (governing philosophy that pushes centralized management), statistics (it is the interpretation of these), therapy
value-neutral
doesn't side with one side or the other
Sociology
a discipline (language) given to systematically understanding society
Society
a population that's prganized to carry out the major functions of life
Weltenshaung
a world view
Who was Wright Mills, what did he write, and what was his main idea?
Marxist/Socialist who wrote "The Sociological Imagination". said that personal troubles and public issues are not the same
What were Peter Berger's three ideas?
Debunking, unrespectability, and relativization
Debunking
going beyond conventional wisdom ("things are not what they seem")
Unrespectability
everything is worthy of study (not seeking to validate)
Relativization
mobility of mind ("what if life was different?")
What was Andre Guery associated with?
Moral statistics (crime in France)
What did Emile Durkheim write and when?
Suicide, in 1897
Who first coined the term "sociologist"?
Emile Durkheim
Sociology is the study of _______
social facts
What are the two types of social facts?
external and coercive
What are external social facts?
Expectations, don't come from within. We are not free to make our own definitions of [fatherhood]
What are coercive social facts?
They exercise restraint on us. However, they can be changed
Human behavior is _________ and ___________.
patterned, linked
Ritzger says that banks no longer encourage _______; but instead _____ and _____.
saving; spending, debt.
What are two examples of things that are personal and public troubles?
Divorce, and credit card debt.
In sociology, we look no at the _______ or _______ senses of behavior, but at the ________.
biological, physical, social roots.
When we look at gender roles, what must we first examine?
Social expectations and Experience
Theories
patterns in the social world applied back to observations
Data
the observations that theories are applied to
Inductive thinking
the search for patterns
Deductive thinking
the application of patterns
Agency
humans have free will
deterministic
if the reasons are right, this will happen (humans do NOT have)
What are the two levels of explanation?
Ideographic and Nomethetic
Ideographic
explains the event in its entirety
Nomothetic
major causes of general phenomena rather than a specific event
What are the two criteria for causation?
Chronology and Connection
Chronology
does your independent variable precede in time your dependent variable?
Connection
consistency
spuriousness
much broader story (finding the third variable that relates the othet two)
What are two common mistakes with causation
Provincialism and tunnel vision
provincialism
finding what you "want" to find
tunnel vision
moving too quickly from one cause to the effect
What are the two ways to measure accuracy?
Validity and reliability
Validity
are you measuring what you think you're measuring?
reliability
are your measures consistent?
Conceptualization
the refinement and specification of abstract terms
Operationalization
development of procedures for observing and defining behaviors
analytical perspective
what we see is dependent on how we see it
All knowledge is contingent on your ____________
social and chronological location
What are the three parts of the social construction of reality?
Externalization, objectivization, and internalization
externalization
the discovery of a new piece of knowledge
objectivization
the fact takes on a life of its own (we forget how we know it)
internalization
affects our behavior
______ is modified by _______
nature, nurture
socialization
process of an infant learning how to get along in society
what are the two types of socialization
Primary and Secondary
Primary Socialization
takes place during childhood and refers to the major ways of life in a given society
Secondary Socialization
more specific to a given role or profession, usually later in life
Self
unique set of traists, behaviors, and values that distinguish one person from the next. (active and passive)
What was the idea that C.H. Cooley came up with?
looking-glass self (self awareness.
G.H. Mead came up with the idea of ______
I and Me (playing and gaming). I is not socialized and me has been socialized.
playing
no worries about other players. not taking into account the other person
gaming
knows to take others expectations into account
Status
a named position (father)
Role
set of rules and expectations
Group
a network of roles ineracting with some frequency
Primary group
small in number, have contact over long period of time (family)
secondary group
don't interact a lot, not much emotional intensity
family
group of persons connected by kinship
kinship
lines of descent or marriage
marriage
socially recognized sexual union
homogomy
tend to marry someone who looks like you (racial group, economic class, education level)
equity theory
people bring resources to a marriage.
What are the three types of property in family?
erotic, generational, and household
religion
a unified system of beliefs and practices relative to sacred things
what are the two realms of religion?
sacred and profane
sacred realm
that which inspires awe, can be humbling and fearful
profane realm
just ordinary
simple supernaturalism
no discontinuity between senses and divine
animism
everything inhabited by gods
theism
gods are seperate from everything else
abstract ideals
ethical understandings of the world that are centered on some aspect of spirituality
civil religions
beliefs and rituals that communicate meaning outside religious institutions
church
large established religious body in the social order with little tension between morals and society
sect
small, less integrated into social order. high tension in surrounding community.
cult
brand new religious innovations.
secularization
more and more of life is coming out from under religious control
fundamentalism
reclaimed authority for religion over a culture that has strayed from its moorings
The state
a compulsory political association with continuous organization whose administrative staff successfully claims the monopoly of violence in enforcement of its orders
sovreignty
within its borders, the state is supreme
nationalism
a sense of belonging..."imainged community"
citizenship
we have rights in society
what are the three characteristics of the state?
sovreignty, nationalism, and citizenship
what are the three types of rights that we have?
civil, political, and social
civil rights
equal protection before the law
political rights
rights of participation
social rights
minimum standards of security
power
the ability of a group or person to achieve their goals despite opposition
pluralists
believe that power is widely distributed among competing interest groups (alliance building)
elitists
see an overlapping network of leaders in various fields running the shoq
how are decisions made in pluralism?
by negotiationa nd compromise
how are decisions made in elitism?
by a small group with little input from others
capitalism
private property and competition. takes money to make money
socialism
collective ownership and central management. no incentive to work.
What did Marx say that the single most important characteristic is?
Labor. noble but difficult existence.
labor should teach us to _______
cooperate
with industrialization comes _____
surplus
what are the two classes of karl marx?
bourgeoisie (owners) and proletariat (workers)
workers own nothing except their ________
labor
What are the two conditions under which we labor?
external (not human nature. should be satisfying) and forced (must do it to survive.)
what is the "third group" of workers?
salesmen
solidarity
capacity for collective action, holds us together. "social glue"
two types of solidarity
mechanical (common experience) and organic (difference, exchange, and complexity)
morality
you know what is right because you have been taught what is right; internalized the demands of the social order
what are the two types of suicide?
altruistic and egoistic
altruistic suicide
someone kills themself for the good of the group
egoistic suicide
person chooses to end their own life
cultural anthropology
particulars and universals in human behavior
psychological behaviorism
operant behavior, change behavior that wouldn't be natural
economics
exhange and rational behavior
distributive justice
the exchange network stays open (both ust feel that they got a good deal)
What are Homans five propositions?
Success, stimulus, value, deprivation-satiation, and aggression-approval
the success proposition
if an activity has been rewarded in the past, it will be more likely to be repeated
the stimulus proposition
if behavior has been helpful has been helpful once, it will be helpful again
the value proposition
endure increased costs for the rewards they find more valuable
rationality proposition
A=pV (action = probability x value)
the deprivation-statiation proposition
behaviors are more/less likely in proportion to the deprivation/satiation of te reward
the aggression-approval proposition
if the reward is not forthcoming, the actor will become aggressive
values
beliefs about the way the world should be (just)
norms
socially approved of means for pursuing goals
voluntaristic theory of action
actors -> means -> goals
conformity
more goals, more means
innovation
more goals, less means
ritualism
less goals, more means
retreatism
less goals, less means
moral
we believe in notions of right and wrong
second order desires
the ability to reflect on your actions or convictions and change them somehow
morals orders
shared obligations that are bigger than the individual(schools, churches, etc)
metanarratives
big stories about the world (how it works, where it came from)