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46 Cards in this Set

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Define Sociology
the study of human society and social life and the causes and consequencing of human behavior.
C.Wright Mills Wrote What?
That sociological imagination enables us to istinguish between personal troubles and public issues.
Define Theory
A set of logically and systematically interrelated propositions that explain a particular process or phenomenon.
What was Emile Durkheim's theory on suicide?
The more a person is integrated into intimate social groups, the less likely they are to commit suicide.
What did Auguste Compte to that made him so popular?
He coined the term "sociology."
Who was Herbert Spencer?
He coined the phrase "survival of the fittest," and he thought that human societies evolved according to the principles of natural laws.
Define Anomie
State of normlessness.
Define Temporocentrism
The belief that one's own time is more important than the past or future.
Micro-Macro Approaches According to Robert Merton are what?
microsociology: the level of sociological analysis concerned with small-scale units such as individuals in small group interactions.
Macrosociology: A level of sociological analysis concerned with large-scale units such as institutions, social categories, and social systems.
What is the functional approach?
It's studying and analyzing every form of social system, including families, prisons, governments, communities, schools, sports teams, and many others.
Define a Manifest functiong (Merton).
The intended consequences of a social system.
Define a Latent function (Merton).
The unintended consequences of a social system.
What's the conflict approach?
Karl Marx said that the structure of society is determined by its economic organization, particularly the ownership of property. It's used to explain the relationship between the parts of the social system and the inequalities that exist among these parts.
What is symbolic interaction?
It emphasizes that people act on the basis of their interpretation of the language and symbols in a situation in and of itself.
Define ethnomethodology
The study of common social knowledge, in particular as it concerns the understanding of others and the varieties of circumstance in which it can take place.
What is applied sociology?
Sociology done in studies in the field to get something done, people are paid to do it.
Basic Sociology is:
Done in schools/academia, it's a broad study of sociology.
A random sample is what?
A sample selected in such a way that every member of a population has an equal chance of being chosen.
Whats a representative sample?
A sample that has approximately the same distribution of characteristics as the population from which it was drawn.
Define reliability:
The extent to which repeated observations of the same phenomenon same in similar results.
Define vadility:
The extent to which observations actually measure what they are suppose to measure.
What's the Hawthorne Effect?
refers to the phenomenon that when people are observed in a study, their behavior or performance temporarily changes.
What is content analysis?
It's a standard methodology in the social sciences on the subject of communication content.
What is the Code of Ethics according to the ASA?
A: Professional Competence
B: Integrity
C: Professional and Scientific Responsibility
D: Respect for people's rights, dignity, and diversity
E: Social Responsibility
Define feminist sociology:
Feminist sociology approaches sociology by observing gender and its role in social structure.
Explain Zimbardo's prison expirament.
He took 24 young men, assigned 12 to be inmantes, 12 to be guards in a mock prison and after just 6 days they were unable to differentiate between play and self.
Define xenocentrism:
It's the belief that what is foreign is best and that one's own lifestyle, produvts, or ideas are inferior to those of others.
Define Culture:
The systems of ideas, values, beliefs, knowledge, norms, customs, and technology shared by almost everyone in a particulat society.
George Murdock did what?
He came up with 60 cultural universals (aspects of culture that are shared by all people, such as symbols, shelter, food, and a belief system).
Define diffusion:
The spread of social institutions (and myths and skills) from one society to another.
Sapir and Whorf did what?
They came up with a theory that states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it.
Define Norms:
Formal and informal rules of conduct and social expectations for behavior.
Define Laws:
Formal, standardized expressions of norms enacted by legislative bodies to regulate certain types of behaviors.
Define Mores:
Norms of conduct associated with strong feelings of right or wrong, violations of which bring intense reaction and some type of punishment.
Define Folkways:
Norms of conduct of everyday life that bring only mild censure or punishment if they are violated.
What is an informal norm?
??
According to Robin Williams, what are the 15 value orientations?
A belief in achievment and success, external conformity, emphasizing the adherence to similarity and uniformity in speech, manners, housing, dress, recreation, politically expressed ideas, and group patterns, democracy, advocating majority rule, representative institutions, and the rejection of monarchical and aristocratic principles.
Define Argot:
A specialized vocabulary or set of idioms used by a particular group
Define Survey:
To examine or look at comprehensively.
Define Culture Shock:
A condition of confusion and anxiety affecting a person suddenly exposed to an alien culture or milieu.
Define Ethnocentrism:
Belief in the superiority of one's own ethnic group.
Define sub-culture:
A subdivision of a dominant culture or an enclave within it with a distinct integrated network of behaviour, beliefs and attitudes.
What is cultural relativism?
understanding the ways of other cultures and not judging these practices according to one's own cultural ways.
Karl Marx did what?
He believed in social conflict, and that all history was was marked by economic determism.
What are the elements of culture?
Material Life, Values, Education, Religion, Language, Social Interactions.
Define bilingualism:
Being able to communicate effectively in two or more languages, with more or less the same degree of proficiency.