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65 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Deviant Behavior
any violation of a cultural or social norm

all 3 norms fall under this category
Criminal Behavior
any violation of criminal law

law norms fall under this category

Formal, Negative Sanctions falls here
Norms
Folkways, Mores/Taboos, and Laws
Folkways
a guideline of expected behavior
Mores/Taboos
norms based on morals
Laws
formalized laws
Informal Sanctions
is either positive or negative but doesn't cause anything because whoever it is giving it has no authority

ex. clapping/booing
Formal Sanctions
is either positive or negative and effects the person its given to because the person giving it has authority over them

ex. raise/promotion or pink slip
Reasons/Goals of Punishment
1- Retribution
2- Incapacitation
3- Deterence
4- Rehabilitation
Retribution
revenge (eye for an eye)
Incapacitation
the removal of the offener so he/she cannot violate the law while incapacitated
Deterence
prevent future crimes if given the opportunity
2 Types of Deterence
A) Special/Specific/Individual -> directed at the offender

B) General ---> deter the public
Criteria for Deterence
A) Severity
B) Certainty
C) Swiftness
Rehabilitation
Medical Model

offender is sick and needs to be treated
Does the Death Penalty work with the Reasons/Goals
Retribution- yes
Incapacitation- yes
Special/Specific/Individual Deterence- no
General Deterence- yes
Rehabilitation- no
Criminal Justice System
1) Law Enforcement
2) Prosecutor
3) Court
4) Corrections (Institutional and Community)
Law Enforcement
executive branch
Prosecutor
Key Person

Decides whether to charge and what to charge
Court
interpret the laws, finding of guilt, sentencing
Institutional Corrections
locked up -> jails, prisons, etc
Community Corrections
Probation, Parole, Diversion, etc
4th Amendment
protection against illegal search and seizure
5th Amendment
protection against self-incrimination
6th Amendment
limited right to an attorney -> if theres a possible loss of liberty involved
Miranda Rights
the 5th and 6th Amendments
8th Amendment
Protection against cruel and unusual punishment
Protection against excessive fine or bail
14th Amedment
Provides Due Process and Equal Protection
Drug Classifications
1) Legal Drugs
2) Regulated Drugs
3) Illegal Drugs
Legal Drugs
Caffeine, OTC, etc
Regulated Drugs
prescription drugs (if used correctly), alcohol, tobacco, etc
Illegal Drugs
a) Marijhuana (hash)
b) Hallucinogens (LSD, Mushrooms, peyote, etc)
c) Narcotics ----> heroin, opium, morphine, etc
d) Cocaine - crack
e) Inhalants -----> "huffers and puffers"
f) Designer Drugs -> ecstasy, crystal meth, etc
Most Used Legal Drug
caffeine
Most Used Regulated Drug
alcohol
Most Used Illegal Drug
marijhuana
3 types of drug users
1) Experimenters
2) Compulsive Users
3) Floaters or chippers
Experimenters
first time users, recreational users
Compulsive users
adopted a drug lifestyle

ex. alcoholics
Floaters or chippers
moochers
Why People Use Drugs
1) pleasure or fun
2) relieve stress or tension
3) peer pressure
4) relieve pain or illness
5) enhance religious experiences
6) enhance social experiences
7) enhance work experiences
Biological Theory
genetics -> people whos parents are drug abusers are prone to it, its in the blood
Psychological
1)Conditioning
2)Habituation
3)Addiction to Pleasure
4)Personality
Conditioning
associated drug use with a stimuli
Habituation
a habit
Addiction to Pleasure
the more pleasurable the drug use is, the more likely it will be used
Personality
dependent personality
Structural-Functionalists View on Drugs
not positive -> drug use can interfere in a person doing his/her functions (work, famly, obeying laws)

ok for medical purposes
Conflicts View on Drugs
Non-marxist: Powerful dont make laws, they control "the agents of social control"

Marxist: poor use drugs to escape reality
Symbolic Interactions View on Drugs
Labeling

Learning and Teaching

'How do we attempt to deal with or control drug use'
Attempts to control drug use
1) Treatment
2) Intervention
3) Prevention
4) Government Regulation
Treatment
active abusers
Intervention
"at-risk"
Prevention
public
Government Regulation
most used

Possesion or use Laws (directed toward the Demand side)

Manufacturing/distrubting/sales Laws (directed toward the supply side)
Demonology
based on religious ideals

offender has no choice - possessed
Classical School
Individuals have choice (ability to reason)

Punishment should fit the crime

Use of incarceration for non-political crimes (jails, prisons, etc began)
Deterrence
We punish people for two reasons:

so the public will not commit the crime (general deterrence)

and the offender will not commit the crime if given a future opportunity (specific/special deterrence)
For deterrence to be successful it must meet what 3 criteria
1- Severity (punishment must be severe enough to make someone not want to do the crime)
2- Swiftness (punishment must come quickly after the crime has been committed)
3- Certainty (it must be certain that if someone commits a certain crime he/she will be punished)
Strain Theory
Structural-Functionalists Perspective

Theorist: Robert Merton

A stress (or strain) exists in America because Americans are supposed to accept appropriate goals (money, new house, new car, etc) but not everyone has the same means to obtain these goals.

People adapt in 5 ways.
5 ways people addapt according to the strain theory
1) conformist
2) innovator
3) ritualist
4) retreatist
5) rebel
Conformists
most people

have the accepted goals and accepted means
Innovators
criminals

have the accepted goals but not the accepted means
Ritualists
have the accepted means but not the accepted goals
Retreatist
society dropouts

dont have the accepted goals nor the accepted means so they just give up
Rebels
cults, militia, etc

they make up their own means and their own goals and follow those instead of going by the societys accepted means and goals