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45 Cards in this Set

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a term describing auguste comete's belief that the world can best be understood throug scientific inquiry.
positivism
Emile Durkheims designation for a condtion in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared vaules and of a sense of purpose in society
anomie
Emile Durkheims term for patterned ways of acting, thinking, and feeling that exist outside one individual but that exer social control over each person.
social facts
a set of logically interrelated statements that attempts to describe, explain, and predict social events
theory
The sociological approach that views society as a stable, orderly system
funtionalist perspectives
funtions that are intended and overtly recognized b the participants in a social unit
manifest functions
unintened functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledge by participants
latent functions
the sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources
conflict perspectives
an approach that examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems.
macrolevel analysis
sociological theory and research that focus on small groups rather than on large scale social structures.
microlevel analysis
the sociological approach that views society as the sum of interactions of individuals and groups
symbolic interactionist perspectives
the sociological approach that attempts to explain social life in modern societies that are characterized by postindustrial, consumerism, and global communicaitons.
post modern perspectives
sociological research methods that are based on the goal of scientific objectivity and that focus on data that can be measured numerically.
quantitative research
sociological research methods that use interpretive description rather than statistics to analyze underlying meanings and patterns of social relationships.
qualitative research
in sociological research, any concept with measurable traits or characteristics that can change or vary from one person, time, situations, or society to another
variable
in sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure
validity
the extend to which a study or research instrument yields consistent results when applied to different individuals at one time or to the same individuals over time.
reliability
a poll in which the researcher gathers facts or attempts to determine the relationships among facts.
survey
the systematic examination of cultural artifacts or various forms of communication to extract thematic data and draw conclusions about social life
content analysis
a detailed study of life and activities of a group of people by researchers who may live with that group over a period of years
ethnography
a relationship that exists when two variables are assocaited more frequently than could be expected by chance
correlation
customs and practices that occur across all socieites
cultural universals
the proposition that language shapes the view of reality of its speakers
sapir-whorf hypothesis
established rules of behavior or standards of conduct
norms
informal norms or everyday customs that may be violated without serious consequences within a particular culture
folkways
williams ogburns term for a gap between the technical development of a society and its moral and legal institutions
cultural lag
the practice of judging all other cultures by ones own culture
ethnocentrism
the belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the cultures own standards
cultural relativism
the component of culture that consists of activites, products, and sercices that are assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle and working classes
popular culture
the extensive infustion of one nations culture into other nations
cultural imperialism
the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire self identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
socialization
the systematic study of how biology affects social behavior
sociobiology
sigmund freuds term for the component of personality that includes all of the individuals basic biological drives and needs that demand immediate gratification
id
the rational reality oriented component of personality that imposes restrictions on the innate pleasure seeking drives of the id.
ego
the conscience, consisting of the moral and ethical aspects of the personality
superego
the totality of our beliefs and feelings abour ourselves
self concept
charles horton cooleys term for the way in which a persons sense of self is derived from the perception of others
looking glass self
the process by which a person mentally assumes the role of another person in order to understand the world from that persons point of view
role taking
those persons whose care, affection, and approval are especially desired and who are most important in the devlopment of the self
significant others
george herber meads term for the childs awareness of the demands and expectations of the society as a whole or of a childs subculture
generalized other
ther persons, groups, or institution that teach us what we need to known in order to participate in society.
agents of socialization
a group of people who are linked by common interests, equal position and similar age
peer group
the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or mal in a specific group or society
gender socialization
aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the mature of ones racial or ethnic status
racial socialization
the process by which knoledge and skills are learned for future roles
anticipatory socialization