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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Sociology
The systematic study of human society
Global Perspective
The study of the lartfer world and out society's place in it
High-income countries
the richest nations with the highest overall standards of living
ex) United states, Canada, Argentina, Western Europe, Israel, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Japan, and Australia
Middle-income countries
nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole
ex) Eastern Europe, some of Africa, Latin America and Asia
Low-income countries
nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor
ex) parts of Africa
Positivism
a way of understanding based on science
Theory
A statement of how and why specific facts are related
Theoretical approach
a basic image of society that guides thinking and research
Structural-function approach
a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
social structure
any relatively stable patter of social behavior
Social functions
the consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
manifest functions
the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
latent functions
the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
social dysfunction
any social pattern that may distupt the operation of society
social-conflict approach
a framework for building theory that sees socitey as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
macro-level orientation
a broad focus on social structures that shape society as a whole
micro-level orientation
a close-up focus on social interaction in specific situations
symbolic-interaction approach
a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
science
a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
concept
a mental construct that represents some part of the world in a simplifed form
variable
a concept whose value changes from case to case
measurment
a procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specitic case
reliability
consistency in mesasurement
validity
actually measuring exactly what you intend to measure
correlation
a relationship in which 2 or more variables change together
case and effect
a relationship in which change in one variable(independent) causes change in another(dependent)
interpretive sociology
the study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world
critical soiciology
the study of society taht focsues on the need for social change
gender
the personal traits and soical potitions that members of a soicety attach to being female or male
research method
a systematic plan for doing research
Sociology
The systematic study of human society
Global Perspective
The study of the lartfer world and out society's place in it
High-income countries
the richest nations with the highest overall standards of living
ex) United states, Canada, Argentina, Western Europe, Israel, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Japan, and Australia
Middle-income countries
nations with a standard of living about average for the world as a whole
ex) Eastern Europe, some of Africa, Latin America and Asia
Low-income countries
nations with a low standard of living in which most people are poor
ex) parts of Africa
Positivism
a way of understanding based on science
Theory
A statement of how and why specific facts are related
Theoretical approach
a basic image of society that guides thinking and research
Structural-function approach
a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability
social structure
any relatively stable patter of social behavior
Social functions
the consequences of any social pattern for the operation of society as a whole
manifest functions
the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern
latent functions
the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern
social dysfunction
any social pattern that may distupt the operation of society
social-conflict approach
a framework for building theory that sees socitey as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change
experiment
a research method for investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
survey
a research method in which subjects respong to a series of statements or questions in a questionaire or an interview
participant observation
a research method in which investigators systematically observe people while joining them in their routine activites
stereotype
an exaggerated description appled to every person in some category