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95 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is the difinition of Sociology?
-the scientific study of human social behavior
-patterns explained by social forces
What is the Sociological Imagaination?
-connecting personal troubles with social issues
*Individuals alone do not shape their life: Politics, location, and other social things do
*C. Wright Mills
What is the official definition of marriage?
-a legal contract between a man and a woman at or above a specified age and not already married to someone else
What is the social science definition of a marriage?
-A legal union with agreed upon rights that is permanent in nature and united sexually, socially, and economically
What is the census definition of a family?
-two or more persons living together and related by blood, marriage, or adoption
What is the social science definition of a family?
-emotional bonds that exist in the presence of material support, sharing of household labor, and a sense of belonging to a primary group
How do most Americans define the family?
-74% say any group of people who love and care for one another
-22% say exclussively in terms of blood, marriage, or adoption
How does William Goode define the family?
-society could not exist without the family which must have motivation
-families must contribute to the larger society to also exsist: reproduction, physical mantenance of members, social placement of child, socialization, and social control
What are William Goode's conclusions about family?
-2 opposite sex adults live together
-division of labor
-engage in economic and social exchanges (do things for eachother)
-share many things
-adults have parental relations with children and assume obligations
-children have relations and help each other
What are some advantages to having a family according to Goode?
-division of labor
-social exchanges of all
-small economies of scale (cheaper per person)
-achieve more than one person could
-continuity and reciprocation
-short line of communication
-learn from each other
-raise morale by knowing idosyncracies
Why are families "Social Institutions"?
-It'a a social unit in society that have roles (parent, child, etc) and rules that define it as a unit in terms of how it's important to larger society and their expectations (rules)
Why is it important to that a family is a social institution (what do we learn from this)?
-good for social context to see how the general concept of what a family is and allows researchers to research the family
What is a family of orientation?
-the family one is born into
What is a family of procreation/cohabitation?
-family you chose and create
*most people spend most time in these two families
How do sociologists conduct research?
-quantitatively
-qualitatively
How does a researcher use quantitative methods to study the family?
-by using surveys in a peer-reviewed process
-requires: measurement, statistical analysis, and generalization of findings
What are the benefits of quantitative research?
-peer reviewed
-can "prove" a theory
-quick but tricky (proper questions for right results)
How does a researcher use qualitative methods to study the family?
-by observing people with or without their knowledge (such as live-ins)
-used for discovering meaning (human behaviors mean something), ethnography, and utilizes in-depth interviewing; NOT "yes" or "no" questions
What are the benefits of qualitative research?
-get more personal and real information
-may get info you hadn't planned on that is beneficial
-develop trust from subject who will be more willing to share experiences
What is a "theoretical perspective"?
-many theories to explain variations and empiraically tested to see if true
-paradigms (many theories)
What are the three theoretical perspectives?
1) functionalism
2) conflict theory
3) symobolic interactionism
Which theoretical perspecives are Macro level?
Micro?
-Functionalism and Conflict Theory
-Symbolic Interaction
Who were the key theorists in the Macro level theories?
-Functionalism: Emile Durkheim and Talcott parsons
-Conflict Theory: Karl Marx
What are the criticisms of Functionalism?
-ignores diversity of experiences
-bias against change
-justifies existing conditions
What are the points of Functionalism?
-was traditional and dominant in 1950's
-society is a system
-families perform essential functions
How is society a system according to Functionalism?
-all parts work together
-Anthropologists started this by trying to figure out organization
-each society is different
What are the four universal family functions?
-teach young ones proper socialization
-emotional security
-reproduce
-provide economic support
What are the points of Conflict Theory?
-inequality, power, and social change lead to always having conflict
-inequality in marriages and families (smaller version of class systems and women don't get paid for work)
What are the criticisms of the Conflict Theory?
-assuption too narrow (power not always someones goal)
-advocates social change (theorists enter WANTING change and very open about bias' whereas others hide it)
What are the points of Symbolic Interaction?
-face to face interaction (look at language, culture sharing,
rituals)
-look at symbols, meanings, and importance of interactions
-view of the family (reality is socially constructed and marriage and family seen as social process)
What are the criticisms of Symbolic Interaction?
-subjective aspects of human experiance
-ignores objective realities
-minimizes impact
What is the Social Exchange Theory?
-an example of Sybolic Interaction
-common in marriage and family studies (do you have time for friendship, love, etc and the Pro's and Con's)
What are the criticisms of the Social Exchange Theory?
-assumes we're all rational
-assumes all behavior is calcuated
-access to resources and power is importatn (people don't enter a realtionship with equal money, education, and experience, etc)
What happened to the families of Grand Forks Flood?
-April 18th 1997
-Dams breached and town flooded
What would a conflict theorist say about the families in the Red River Flood?
-Conflict arose because women were doing more work for no money still and stuck in the home doing "kids" work
-Inequality of help provided to certain members of society and not others
How did families carry out their functions during the flood?
-fought hard to sandbag to prevent problems
-tried to restore homes if possible
-women seemed to worry more and move items as high as possible in homes
-overall denial that flood would happen
-lived in FEMA trailers
-Recieved aid and food from special donations for disaster victims
According to Hernandez, what were the three revolutionary changes in children's lives from mid-1800's to mid-1900's?
1) radical change in fathers' work
2) approaching extinvtion of the large nuclear family
3) flowering of mass education
What was the reason for the change in fathers' work?
-attraction of comparatively well-paid jobs in expanding urban-industrial economy motivated mass migration from farms to urban areas
What was the reason for extinction of the large nuclear family?
-items needed to be purchased
-child labor laws
-madatory education of children
-competition between new goods/services and childrens time with parents (and money)
What was the reason for education blooming?
-value of childrens work declined
-child protection movement and labor schooling
-higher educational attainments became necessary for better incomes and prestige
What were the three changes that occurred in the post WWII era?
1) expansion of mothers' participation in paid labor force
2) rise of one-parent family living arrangements
3) the drop and subsequent rise in child poverty
Why were woman able to enter the work force in the post WWII era?
1) increases in school enrollment and school year for children
2) mothers were highly educated already
3) fathers didn't always have full time, year round employment so immediate economic security was appealing
Why does Hernandez say teh "Ozzie and Harriet" family was a myth?
-supposedly all families had a mother and father and respectful children
-in reality during this time 1/5th of newborns in 1940 and 1950 were not living in intact, two-parent families
-1/3 of 17yo were not living in such families
-marital dissolution seemed steady because deaths decreased as divorce increased
-woman actually worked much more than statistics claim in lodgers, family shops and farms, etc are counted.
What is the outlook for immigrant children's lives?
-immigrant children have equal work ethics as native-born
-more likely to benegit from stable two parent family situations
-more likey to be exposed to socio-economic risks
-depending on origin they are more likely to be in poverty (only from lack of year round work)
-still do as well as (or better) for physical health, metal health, and school adjustment!
Why do people feel nostalgic for the 1950's (what happened before that)?
-Before 1950, the Stock Market Crash occurred, Great Depression, WWII, Housing Shortage we BAD times
-people felt relieved when it was over which made the current time seem so wonderful!
Who was Stephanie Coontz?
-historian who wrote 'The Way We Never Were' and 'The Way We Really Were'
Once the bad things ended before 1950, what changed to make people remember it as so nice?
-better quality of life
-families were together
-job availability
-optimism about future
-trust in institution (gov, buisiness world, etc)
What were the social conditions during the 1950's in terms of men and woman working?
-women unhappy about returning to home, became alcoholics and drug addicts
-difficult for men to be sole $ maker
-IF women worked, they were teachers, secretaries, flight attendants, etc.
What were the social conditions in terms of marriage, divorce, and births?
-divorce rate fell
-age of marriage lowered
-birth rates soard and peaked in 1957
-increased wages
-timing between children decreased an lived in 2 parent homes
-homicide rates low
-peak in gender roles (very rigid)
Who did not benefit from the 1950's?
-non whites and non stereotypical people (hated becuase of racial and sexual repression)
Who benefited from the 1950's?
-families
-WWII veterans
*the government invested in families
What were the economic and political conditions in the 1950's?
-government had many programs (especially for WW vets)to help families
-good unionization then compared to now
-many business/industries based in U.S. not moved to other countries
What were some of the programs the government offered to help families?
-GI bill paid for vet's college tuition
-low interest morgages given to vets
-higher tax on wealthy and large corporations
-minimum wage increased more regularly
-new jobs, schools, suburbs, highways in 50's
What did the "Ozzie and Harriet" clip show us?
-everyone always dresses nicely
-everyone polite: no problems
-perfect homes and landscaping
-great salespeople who are friendly
-siblings get along (funny younger brother)
Why are disasters important research sites?
-they strip away veils that disguise social situations
-they give readings on vulnerability in hopes of reducing damage caused from disasters
What is known about gender and disasters?
-women are more vulnerable in disasters, especially in developing countries
-women are more likely and willing to stand in line for food, clothing, shelter, cleaning supplies, and gas vouchers
What research methods were used in this study and who was in it?
-in depth interviews
-observation
-document analysis
-interviewed 40 women (20 twice, total of 60)
-snowball sampling and volunteers through newspaper
-data collection for two years and correspondance with some informants 5-6 years after flood!
What do teh portraits of teh flood survivors show?
-some people fell down the social and economic ladder while others benefitted from the disaster
-marriages struggled while other relationships bloomed and strengthened
What age do most teens first have sex?
-16 to 17
How many teens use condoms?
-58% (2001) compared to only 46% in 1991
How many teens who have had sex discuss this with their parents?
-1 in 10 ahead of time
-1/4 after the fact
-1/5 found out some other way
-40% no
What do England and Thomas find in their study on "hooking up"?
-college students are no longer using traditional dating as means to a relationship, but rather they use hooking up to lead to dates to lead to relationships
What did courtship look like in the 1800's?
-formal visits
-no privascy
-adult involvement
In the mid 1900's, what were the expectations of women?
-to control and turn down men; if anything happened it was the womans fault because they have virtue and morality
What are dating scripts?
-guides for behavior
-stereotyped genders
-highly predictable
What was a typical dating script according to southern college students?
-men ask out woman
-female eats light
-man buys flowers
-woman buys new clothes
-man pays bill
-man makes initial sexual move
-both make small chat
What is homogamy?
-we pick partners that are the same as us such as race, age, education, relious background, and social class
What are the three reasons for Homogamy?
1) propinquity (geographic closeness)
2) social pressue (who's appropriate)
3) interpersonal dynamics (things in common, etc)
According to Amy Steinbugler, what percentage of couples in teh U.S. are black/white interracial couples?
-1960: 0.126%
-2000: 0.6%
What percentage of U.S. interacial marriages are there?
-1960: 0.4%
-2000: 2%
What did Steinbugler tell us about romantic preferences?
-love is affected by political, economic, and social conditions though it appears from "nowhere"
What are the three reasons for choosing white partners according to Steinbugler?
1) racial segregation caused from history
2) essentialized attitudes about race and gender
3) heteronormative assumptions of proper intimacy
What did Steinbugler mean by "essentialized attitudes" about race and gender?
-we tend to make generalizations about a group we're unfamiliar with
-ex; Puerto Ricans being defiant in school, but not always so
What was the impact that Newsweek had after publishing it's article in 1986?
-older single women are sad and lonely
How many marriages started with cohabitation?
-50%
What is a POSSLQ?
-People of Opposite Sex Sharing Living Quarters
Who is most likely to cohabitate?
-low educated individuals
-divorcees
How did children factor in the cohabitation discussion?
-37% of cohabitators have children
-no custody battles if split occurs
What is a civil union?
-a legally recognized union between same sex (and sometimes opposite sex) couples that varies depending on location
What is the difference between a marriage and a civil untion?
-recognized by federal government and is considered a family
-a legal contract between a man and woman
What states and countries have legalized gay marriages?
-Belgium, Canada, MA, Netherlands, Spain
According to Chauncey, why do gays want to marry?
-they have the right
-procreation is a poor excuse because adoption exists for opposite sex couples as well!
In Chauncey chapter, why are some people opposed to gay marriage?
-extremists say it is supporting the work of Satan
-gender would become nothing and "husband" and "wife" would be just words
-procreation is an unspoken part of marriage
-arguments for childrens' welfare (though unproved)
What is the Defense of Marriage Act?
-says states can refuse to awknowledge marriages and civil unions performed elsewhere.
-government will NOT recognize these for any reason
How does Stacey describe gay and lesbian families?
-as normal families
What is the history of gay and lesbian families according to Stacey?
-since ancient times, heterosexuallity was prominant and acceptable (especially the West)
-seen in mammals
-heterosexuality became a "family" issue in the late twentieth century
-technologies available make same sex families possible
-Stonewall rebellion made same sex couples visible to the public
Why is the Stonewall Rebellion Important?
-It brought gays and lesbians into view of the world when police raided a gay bar/club
What is Stacey's argument about gay and lesbian marriage?
-It will help destroy the current gender and secual injustices of our current institution
-would promote a democratic, pluralist expansion of the meaning, practice, and politics of family life
What were some roles of women during the flood disaster?
-Community, Family, Work:
+help in community through labor or food making
+emotional support givers
+taking care of children and neighbors as well as loaning needed items
What role was the most demanding of women in the Grand Forks Flood?
-domestic obligations and responsibilites
How did women negotiate their multiple roles?
-they allowed guests to help with chores
-use of extended family helped alleviate pressures of one role or another
*women felt enriched from fulfilling duties and had extra energy to do it all
What types of issues arose in attempting to balance home and work?
-no childcare
-one role suffered more than the other
-extra work required to do and husbands were around less doing their own jobs and community help
What is the "second shift" or "double day"?
-After completing a full work day, one returns home to clean, cook, and raise the family which is a second job!
What are the three gender ideologies, according to Hochschild?
-to be a committed wife, a wonderful mother, and a good worker
What are Hochschild's findings about couples negotioating the second shift?
-women tend to do more of it than the husband