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65 Cards in this Set

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Means of production
all the objects required to produce goods; objects such as factories, machinery, land, tools, transportation equipment, communications equipment etc.
means of mental production
machinery capital and labor required to produce and disseminate ideas
surplus value
marx's view of exploitation was surplus value
-equals the difference between the calue of the goods workers produce and the calue of the worker's labor
exploitation is the process whereby surplus value is extracted from workers
power
ability to get others to do what you want them to do
social status
statuses can be ranked in terms of how desirable they are or how much prestige they have. statuses which are more desirable and prestigious have greater social status
status
position in society. everybody occupies a number of statuses: daughter old person student.
downsizing
practice where companies reduce the number of workers they emply without shutting down their offices, factories, or stores. Instead, they fire their workers or fail to hire new workers when old workers quit or retire.
labor market
the buying and selling of labor in the free market. employers buy the labor power of their employees. employees sell their labor power to their employers.
poverty
three times the amount of money it takes to feed a family. the us uses what is called "the thrifty food plan" to determine how much money it takes to feed a family
reserve army of labor
the large number of unemployed and underemployed people in the united states ( a person is underemplyed if they are part time or temporary worker but would prefer full time permanent employment
unemployment
bureau of labor statistics- out of work, are available for work, and have actively looked for work in the past four weeks
culture of poverty
culture in which group members develop:
a present- time orientation
low aspirations
fatalism
feelings of powerlessness and hopelessness
fatalism
belief that you have no control over events, that what is going to happen to you will happen to you regardless of what you do
model minority group
minority group that has succeeded economically, and whose economic success is supposedly due to the fact that is possesses the right cultural traits
present-time orientation
inability to plan for the future because the individual's attention is focused entirely on the present
black urdan underclass
william wilson refers to the large number of poor blacks living in poor urban neighborhoods as...
demographic explanations
explanations of social phenomena that focus on factors such as population size, family size and structure, and immigrations
dissimilarity index
measure of segregation that equals, for any given region, the number of blacks that would have to move to overcome segregation decided by the number of blacks that would have to move if the region were completely segregated
extreme poverty areas
neighborhoods where more than 40% of the population is poor
high poverty areas
neighborhoods where 30-40% of the population is poor
intentional racism
when an individual, group, or organization intentionally discriminates against another individual or group because of the other individual's or group's racial or ethnic status
institutional racism
occurs when racially inequitable outcomes in one institutional arena (such as the housing market) result in racially inequitable outcomes in other institutional arenas (such as the public school system)
occurs when the rules, arrangements, and practices of society's social institutions tend to favor one racial or ethnic group more than another; when these rules arrangements, and practices have racially or ethnically unequal outcomes
isolation index
measure of segregation. tells the percentage of blacks that live in the neighborhood of the average black person.
poverty areas
neighborhood where 20-30% of the population is poor
residential segregation
when whites and blacks live in seperate neighborhoods
deviance
1. socially disapproved acts beliefs and behavior
2. acts beliefs and behavior that violate some agreed-upon norm (rule or law) that prevails in a community or in society at large
social control
ability of others to make us conform/ to keep us from being deviant
stigma
powerfully negative social label that radically changes a person's self-concept and social identity
stigmatization
process whereby an individual or group is given a powerfully negative social label that transforms the way others think about them and the way they think about themselves
white collar crime
crimes committed by persons of high social status in the course of their occupations
bureaucratic alienation
experience most people feel when they enter a bureaucratic organization of losing their individuality and/or being forced to behave in ways that do not fit their images of themselves
bureaucracy
large hierarchical organization that
1. is governed by formal rules and regulations and
2. has a clear set of highly defined work tasks. specific work tasks are associated with specific positions in the organization
career ladder
organized paths of career advancement within a bureaucracy
deskilling
process whereby companies take a complex task, break the task down into many simple steps, and hire different employees to carry out each seperate step
division of labor
1. way in which and degree to which the work society needs to accomplish is divided into specific jobs and tasks
2. way in which these jobs and tasks are distributed to different people and social groups
hierarchy
group of persons or positions that are arranged in a rank order, with those at the top of the order wielding more power than those at the bottom of the order
organization
group created to pursue definite goals, where
1. tactics and procedures are designed and evaluated in terms of their effectiveness in achieving those goals and
2. operations are based on written records and rules
production process
all the different steps involved in making a product
class
large group of people who occupy a similar economic position in the wider society based on:income
wealth
property ownership
education
skills
authority in the economic sphere
mobility
ability to move from one position in a stratification system to another
income
money earned from salary, wages and payments periodically received as returns on an occupation or investment or as government transfers (ex: welfare payments)
mean
average value of a series of numbers
median
midpoint in a series of values that are arranged in numerical order
stratification
existence of structure inequalities in a society (inequality created by social structures): to the way that societies social structures distribute rewards unequally among individuals
stratification systems
specific way in which inequality is structured in a specific society at a specific point in time
wealth
total extent at a single point in time of an individual's accumulated assets and access to resources.
1. net worth- value of an individual's assets minus his or her debt
2. net financial assets- individual's net worth minus the equity she or he has accrued in a home or vehicle
dominant ideology
ideologies of dominant groups.
-justify inequality and dominant group's power
-portrays interests of dominant group as being in the best interest of all groups
-generalize interests of dominant group to all groups
Marxist Alienation
1. process whereby workers are seperated from their labor, the procuts of their labor, their innate humanity and other workers
2. process whereby worker through the exploitation they experience at work, create an economic and social system that dominates them and is alien to them
ideology
logically interrelated set of ideas that justifies some set of social relationships (can justify an existing set of social relationships or a set of social relationships proposed as an alternative to existing social relationships)
false consciousness
when dominant groups are able to generate ideologies that convince subordinate groups that the current class system benefits them and is better than any possible alternative economic system
occupational structure
educational system
cycle of poverty
globalization and downsizing
unemployment, part time employment, low wages, and the reserve army of labor
5 factors that play a role in creating and maintaining poverty in the US
Sutherland's Differential Association Theory
you are who you hang out with
justify rulebreaking
Hirschi's Control Theory
social control will prevent deviance
social control ability to make people conformist
1. attachment
2. commitment
3. involvement
4. belief
4 types of social control
Hirschi's Deterrence Theory
punishment must be swift and certain to deter deviance
Social Disorganization Theory
deviance most likely to occur with people who have weak social ties and litte/no supervision
commodity fetishism
consumers good and money that we fail to realize represent social relationships
1. heirarchy of authority
2. numerous rules and regulations
3. impersonal social relations
4. career ladders
5. efficiency
6. high division of labor
6 characteristics of bureaucratic organization
1. red tape
2. lose individuality
3. deskilling
4. alienation
5. cogs in a machine
6. workers knowleghe of production process decreases
7. easy to replace workers
8. lower wages, benefits
9. weakening of union
problems with bureaucracy
1. slavery
2. caste system
3. feudal/ estate
4. class
4 stratifications
1. fluid
2. positions are somewhat achieved
3. impersonal, no obligations to other classes
4. economically based
4 ways class-based systems differ
1. institutional processes feine goods and services as valuable
2. various social positions and occupations within the structure
3. rules of allocation distribute various goods to different positions
4. specific links to different positions in the structure
4 components of stratification system
Marxist free labor
laborers have no choice but to sell their labor because have nothing else to see
ignores other forms of inequality
capitalists do contribute
weaknesses of marxist theory
small groups control wealth and ideas
control state=control communication
capitalists act together
strengths of marxist theory