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89 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
socially shaped ideas about what is good and desired
role performance
hows person actually carries out role
social forces
forces (income, technology, ideas, gvmt) that arise from the society we are a part of (relastionships w/ friends and fam)
concepts of culture (3)
1.cognitive-ideas and beliefs on what is right/wrong, knowledge is science and easier to test.
2. normative level- norms, values, sanctions
3. symbolic- verbal and non verbal communication
secondary group
interact formally, relate as roles and expect profeit from eachother. sales clerk and customer, larger: ECU, corporations
3 stages of soc
religious, metaphysical, scientific
process of sociocultural development
Q=how societies have changed over time, implicatoins of future, Def= how societies have become larger, more complex, and specialized and food tech dvlpmt, specializatin of jobs
organic solidarity
part of fund persp:wide variety of jobs so you must depend on another (city)
culture shock
travel somewhere else and you feel uncomfertable to their ways...dont know how to act
how people should behave-specific rules
sapir whorf
lang predisposes us to see world in certain way, molds mind and determines how we think. ex: english lang has past present and future tenses so we perceive time that way
folkway norm-
weak norms that specifly expectaions of proper behavior and no consequences (manners)
people interacting as residents in same area
material culture
tangible object to include every conceivable kind of physical object of humans
design for living or a complex whole consisting of objects, values and other characteristics that people acquire as memebers of society.
1. tangibal, human made objects reflect society
2. abstract entities that influence
Goals (4)
1.objectivity-make unbiased judgement on seeing something
2. reliablity of measures-consistant measure that everyone will understand in the same way
3. replication-repeat study to test original findings
4. publication-make data avaliable by journal, publisihing
post industrial:
high tech dominates society, moving to smaller towns again, computer age,
1. agricultural pursuit-sell farm related product
2. manufacturing-factory
3. service occupation- teacher, barber, resturant. 1& 2 dont want to do
industrial: 20, large, greatest variety (detroit known for cars)
machinery, industrial rev 250 yrs ago, family not in charge of all-schools for edu, church for religion etc, work outside fam w/ strangers,
pastoral:2, 2nd smallest, 4
nomatic, domesticate and herd animals,desert & mountains, E africa(cattle),middle east(cames and horses), mongolia(horse/cattle/sheep/goat),
nomatic, hunt animals(men) and gather plants(women), 99%before 1%now, work 2-3 hr/day, 1 group, smallest pop, 1 community
immediate return system-eat food immediatly
delayed-food processed and stored
social structure(how society is organized:school is public or private)+ shared products of society(material and nonmaterial products-poliitics,feelings)

functionalist sports
good b/c conducts success to other areas of live through hard work, alertness, physical health. bonds players, people unite b.c of fav sports team
secondary analysis
search for new knowledge in existing data and use for diff purpose
self admisistered questionaire
give everyone same ques adn ask them to fill it out
systematic sample
every 10th person
structured interview
researcher asks standar ques that requires them to choose among a group of answers
Concepts of social research(4)
1. constants and variables- C=something doesnt change(dont ask group of men what they're sex is). V=changes from oner person to next(ask class what state born in and answers will vary)
2.independed and dependent variables- I=potential cause, not manipulated though. D= depends on cause in ind var.
3.hypothesis-stmt of rela bw two variables that we test (edu guess)
4. correlation- consistant reoccuring rela bw 2 or more variables
soc integration
degree to which people are tied to social group: excessive=suicide b/c cant contribute to group. inadequate-widows b/c no support
prescribed role
expectations of how certain role should act
control group
exposed to dep variable
group vs society
G=no social interaction (elevator) S= do talk about groups with meaning
ideas are subjective, unreliable (god controls lives)
objective ideas and facts of social nad physical world
characteristics of soc
1. broad subj matter
2. interdiciplinary ties
3. multiple theoretical perspectives and none are satisfactory
4. faddish-inclined towards fads of time
video:when will people help
ind=more people in room, less likely one is to help. dep=reaction. Influences of reactions=is it ER, weight on shoulders to act;more people=less weight.
Research methods (3)
1. survey- most common, ques on attitudes and Behaviors. questionaire=teacher surveys. interview=ask ques and record/draw conclusion on answer..trained person and through phone, email. General social survey(GSS)-data collected 30 yrs online.
2. observable studies-detatched=researcher outside group and not interacting. paticipant-researcher participated to try to understand beh
3. existing data-analyze old collected data. census data and content analysis-examine old stuff bc no where else to get it. ex:collumbine
role conflict
mean judge by day and nice dad by night
unstructured interview
answer freely to open ended ques
formalized and written mores
position in society.
society as living organism
each organ (society:family, gvmt, religion) contributes to the survival of the whole. survival of fittest (rich survive, poor die)
mechanical solidarity
part of func persp:do same work and have same beliefs (farmers)
horticultural: 3, med, more but small
settled, small gardens, slash and burn (slash shrub and burn to use for fertilizer), warefare common, less 10000 people
role strain
incompatible demands from role of single status. ex:prof torn bw teachign class and researching
set of widly shared beliefs, norms and necessary procedures to meet basic needs of society:fam, edu, economy and politics
Functionalist perspective
macro,stablem each part of society (fam,religion,gvmt) performs functions for the whole of society but are interdependent. if conflict, parts adjust (bad economy=spend less). people unite b/c same values. 1940-50, too optimistic: ignore problems
collection of interacting indv sharing same way of life in same territory
strong norms with consequences..demands
primary group
members interact informalls, ralate and people, enjoy rela, small
focus on persons thoughts and meanings over behaviors and activities
manifest function
part of funct persp, those intended to seek obvious. ex: go to college to get an education
latent function
part of funct persp, unintended and unrecognized. ex: go to college to find husband
stratified sample
know % of pop and select rendom sample where each group is equally represinted
experimental group
exposed to ind var and to cause and effect
acheived status
earn them
value power
natural to obey bc parents told us to, element of moral persuation:good to win bad to lose, carry implied sanctions and looked down apon if you rebel
2 branches of sciences of society
stats (study of organization) and dynamics (process of chaning organization)
Conversion of philosophers to sociologists upheals of 19 cent and industrial/french rev(farms-->cities, questioning church, high crime rate etc)
2.advancement of natural science(explain aspects of physical world to model how to control beh)
Soc Imagination
look at person/societies behaviors and social forces that cause them
Theoretical Perspective
general assumptions about the nature of society (tp: its naturally assumed that you'll wipe your ass). a way of seeing and understanding a particular problem and instruments to let us see closer that we would w/o these systems
social aggregateq
# people in one place not interacting . ex:audience and theater, people and street
ethnocentrism (my society is better than yours), temporocentrism(things in past were better), personal experiences(distort our perceptions of experiences diff than our own, ex: kids learn lang easer than adults bc the experience of learning a new lang makes it harder to learn a new one later in life
social consensus
part of fund persp:member of society agree and do whats best for society.
role set
array of roles attached to one particular status:professor is also lecturer, adviserm researcher
USA soc focuses on...
specific problems and treated each seperatly. Ex: childrens bureaum workers comp etc
Conflict Perspective
macro, unstable, conflict among competing groups brings about social change thats beneficial to society (defeat brittis in rev on 4th of july is good bc were independent). 1960s;civil rights mvmt, conflicts bw old and young. too negative
ascribed status
given to us independently of what we do: gender, race
conflict sports
reinforces gender/racial inequlities, discourages b/c dreams are hard to achieve, violence and bad sports if lose
symbolic perspctive
micro, attention to details of situation and interaction b/w indv's and that situation. people act how they interpret their social world (i talk smart so they respond to me as rescpecful and respond more positivly). symbol=object, sound, word. written word has symbols beyond black squiggles. PERCEPTION! ignores any real social forces
symbolic sports
if coaches and fans behave, if you think you are a winner youll do better, kids say they're good b/c mom tells them they are, coach expects more out of blacks b/c they're know to be better. communication b/w players
sociocultural evolution
changing from technologically simple society to more complex with more consequences(driving force=food production)
what is soc
scientific systematic study of human societies
global analysis
study other socieites in world outside of USA
economic globalization
intership among world economies~
social marginality
being excluded from mainstream societies (gays, poor)& how they make it in society
its about socializing, deals with social work, and not related to socialism
agricultural:8, med/lg, variety of specialized
5000 yrs ago, plows and draft animals, feed more people so more specialized jobs, can get huge (india) but usually small
emphasis of soc (3)
1. interdisciplinary-socipsyc...both sociology and psychology...what they share in common) history-ww1 presidential elections that cuased social events, ordinary people and how they struggled/changed
3. comparative anth-compares diff societies withe similarities and diff of other societies (diff of marriage rules)..cross cultural
docuses on invs and small groups:see players of court
master status
status of wife when with husband
content analysis
search for specific words and turn into #'s. ex: how many times word love is in novel determines if its a romantic book
focuses on total society: see whole basketball arena but hardly each player
making inexpensive products for cheap by hiring outsiders to come in and work for underpaid. Bad=low wage employ, reduces tax base
Soc as a science
make hypethesis about situation (what 2 things have in common and compare), and test (compare) with other forms like it to get a theory
subordinate status
status of banker is sub when with husband
expectation of what an indv should do in accordance with particular status
Social group
people act in accordance w status and roles to form this. collection of people who interat with one another and have certain feelings of unity (fam, business partners)
rewards for conforming to norms and punishments for not
status inconsistency
high rank as DR, but low rank in office because shes a female