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21 Cards in this Set

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Principles or rules people are expected to observe; they represent the do's and don'ts of society
NORMS
Noncomformity to a set of norms that are accepted by a significant number of people in a community or society...can also apply to the activities of the groups.
DEVIANCE
ex. Heaven't Gate Cult; members functioned easily within the wider society, supporting themselves via email. Their position clearly diverges from the deviant subculture of the homeless...a subculture whose members hold values that differ substantially from those of the majority
DEVIANT SUBCULTURE
Promote conformity & protect against nonconformity. A sanction is any reaction from others that is meant to ensure that a person or group complies with a given norm
SANCTION
Norms defined by governments as principles that their citizens must follow; sanctions are used against people who do not conform to them
LAWS
Constitutes any type of behavior that breaks a law
CRIMES
A minority of individuals, an amoral, or psychopathic, personality develops. Psychopaths are withdrawn, emotionless characters who delight in violence for its own sake
PSYCHOPATHS
A concept first brought into wide usage in sociology by DURKHEIM, referring to a situation in which social norms lose their hold over individual behavior
ANOMIE
A renewed emphasis on crime prevention rather than law enforcement to reintegrate policing within the community
COMMUNITY POLICING
Argument that deviance is deliberately chosen and often political in nature
CONFLICT THEORY
A theory that views crime as the outcome of an imbalance between impulses towards criminal activity and controls that deter it
CONTROL THEORY
Hold that criminals are rational beings who will act to maximize their own reward unless they are rendered unable to do so through either social or physical controls
CONTROL THEORISTS
Criminal activities by means of electronic networks or involving the use of new information technologies. Electronic money laundering, personal identity theft, electronic vandalism, and monitoring electric correspondence are all emergent forms of cybercrime
CYBERCRIME
An interpretation of the development of criminal behavior proposed by EDWIN H. SUTHERLAND, according to whom criminal behavior is learned through association with others who regularly engage in crime
DIFFERENTIAL ASSOCIATION
An approach to the study of DEVIANCE that suggests that people become "deviant" because certain labels are attached to their behavior by political authorities and others
LABELING THEORY
A branch of criminological thought, prominent in Britain in the 1970's, that regarded deviance as deliberately chosen and often political in nature. The new criminologists argued that crime and deviance could only be understood in the context of power and inequality within society
NEW CRIMINOLOGY
Criminal activities carried out by organizations established as businesses
ORGANIZED CRIME
According to EDWIN LEMERT, the actions that cause others to label one as a deviant.
PRIMARY DEVIATION
According to EDWIN LEMERT, following the act of Primary Deviation, Secondary deviation occurs when an individual accepts the label of deviant and acts accordingly
SECONDARY DEVIATION
A way of punishing criminal and deviant behavior based on rituals of public disapproval rather than incarceration. The goal of shaming is to maintain the ties of the offender to the community
SHAMING
Criminal activities carried out by those in white-collar, or professional jobs
WHITE-COLLAR CRIMES