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41 Cards in this Set

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anticipatory socialization
process through which people acquire the values and orientations found in statuses they will likely enter in the future
game stage
stage in the development of self during which a child acquires the ability to take the role of a group or community and to conform his/her behavior to broad, societal expectations
gender
psychological, social, and cultural aspects of maleness and femaleness
generalized other
perspective of the larger society and its constituent values and attitudes
identity
Essential aspect of who we are, consisting of our sense of self, gender, race, ethnicity and religion
looking glass self
Sense of who we are that is defined by incorporating the reflected appraisals of others
play stage
Stage in the development of self during which a child develops the ability to take a role, but only from the perspective of one person at a time.
reflexive behavior
Behavior in which the person initiating an action is the same as the person toward whom the action is directed
resocialization
process of learning new values, norms, and expectations when an adult leaves an old role and enters a new one.
role taking
Ability to see oneself from the perspective of others and to use that perspective in formulating one's own behavior
self
Unique set of traits, behaviors, and attitudes that distinguishes one person from the next; the active source and passive object of behavior.
sex
biological maleness or femaleness
socialization
process through which one learnshow to act according to the rules and expectations of a partiular culture
total institution
place where individuals are cut off from the wider society for an appreciable period and where together they lead and enclosed, formally administered life
tracking
the grouping of students into different curricular programs, or tracks, based on an assessment of their academic abilities
account
statement designed to explain unanticipated, embarrasing, or unacceptable behavior after the behavior has occurred
aligning action
action taken to restore an identity that has damaged
back stage
area of social interaction away from the view of an audience, where people can rehearse and rehash their behavior
cooling out
gently persuading someone who has lost face to accept a less desirable but still reasonable alternative identity
disclaimer
assertion designed to forestall any cvomplaints or negative reactions to a behavior or statement that is about to occur
dramaturgy
study of social interaction as theater, in which people (actors) prject images(play roles) in front of others (audience)
embarrassment
spontaneous feeling that is experiencedwhen the identity someone is presenting is suddenly and unexpectedly discredited in front of others
front stage
area of social interaction where people perform and work to maintain appropriate impressions
impression management
act of presenting a favorable public image of oneself so that others will form positive judgments
performance stigma
set of individuals who cooperate in staging a performance that leads an audience to form am impression of one or all team members
stigma
deeply discrediting charcteristic that is viewed as an obstacle to competent or morally trustworthy behavior.
endogamy
marriage within one's social group
exogamy
marriage outside one's social ggroup
extended family
family unit consisting of the parent-child nuclear family and other relatives such as grandparents, aunts, uncles, and cousins
monogamy
marriage of one man and one woman
neolocal residence
living arrangement in which a married couple sets up residence separate from either spouse's family
nuclear family
family unit consisting of at least one parent and one child
polygamy
marriage of one person to more than one spouse at the same time
virtual community
group of people who use computers to regularly communicate with one another in lieu of face-to-face interaction
absolutism
approach to analyzing deviance that rests on the assumption that all human behavior can be considered either inherently good or inherently bad
criminalization
official definition of an act of deviance as a crime
deterrence theory
theory of deviance posting that people will be prevented from engaging in deviant acts if they judge the costs of such an act to outweigh its benefits
deviance
behavior, ideas, or attributes of an individual or group that some people in society find offensive
labeling theory
theory stating that deviance is the consequence of the application of rules and sanctions to an offender; a deviant is an individual to whom the identity "deviant" has been succesfully applied
medicalization
definition of behavior as a medical problem and mandating the medical profession to provide some kind of treatment for it
relativism
approach to analyzing deviance that rests on the assumption that deviance is socially created by collective human judgments and ideas