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63 Cards in this Set

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Bisexual
individuals who are sexually, physically, emotionally attracted to both same and opposite sex partners
Classism
system that stigmatizes poor and working-class people and their cultures and assigns high status to the affluent and their culture solely because of their relative wealth
Coming out
someone who has revealed his or her GLBT sexual orientation to others
Conflict diversity
understanding how different groups exist in a hierarchy of inequality in terms of power, privilege and wealth
Counting diversity
empirically enumerating differences within a given population
Culture diversity
importance of understanding and appreciating the cultural differences between groups
Discrimination
actions that deny equal treatment to persons perceived to be members of some social category or group
Dominant group
social group that controls the political, economic, and cultural institutions in a society
Essentialist
perspective argues that reality exists independent of our perception of it, that is, that there are real and important (essential) differences among categories of people
Ethnic group
social group that has certain cultural characteristics that set it off from other groups and whose members see themselves as having a common past
Ethnoviolence
acts motivated by prejudice intending to do physical or psychological harm because of the victims' group membership
Exploitation
the dominant group uses the subordinate group for its own ends, including economic profit and higher position in the social hierarchy
Feminism
movement to end male supremacy
Gay
usually refers to homosexual males, although it is also used as an umbrella term for homosexuals in general
Gender
behavior that is culturally defined as appropriate and inappropriate for males and females
GLBT
gay, lesbian, bisexual, transgendered people
Good-for-business diversity
the argument that businesses will be more profitable, and government agencies and not-for-profit corporations will be more efficient, with diverse labor forces
Hegemonic ideologies
ideas that are so influential that they dominate all other ideologies
heterosexism
system of oppression against the GLBT population
heterosexual
persons who are sexually, physically, and emotionally attracted to people of the opposite sex
Homophobia
refers to the fear and hatred of those who love and sexually desire people of the same sex
Homosexual
persons who are sexually, physically, and emotionally attracted to people of the same sex
Ideology
body of ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual group, class, or culture
Income
amount of money that a family earns from wages and salaries, interest, dividends, rent, gifts, and transfer payments
Individual discrimination
behavior of individual members of one group/category that is intended to have a differential and/or harmful effect on members of another group/category
Institutional discrimination
policies of dominant group institutions, and the behavior of individuals who implement these policies and control these institutions, that are intended to have a differential and/or harmful effect on subordinate groups
Intergenerational mobility
a child's class position relative to the child's parents
In the closet
someone who has not revealed his or her GLBT sexual orientation to others
Intersexed
a person having physical attributes of both males and females
Intragenerational mobility
degree to which a young worker who enters the labor force can improve his or her class position within a single lifetime
Lesbian
homosexual females
master status
one that has a profound effect on one's life and that dominates or overwhelms the other statuses one occupies
Meritocracy
stratified society wherein the most skilled people have the better jobs and the least skilled people have the lowest-paying jobs, regardless of race, gender, age, and so on
Occupational sex segregation
differential distribution of men and women in into sex-appropriate occupations in the labor force
Oppression
a dynamic process by which one segment of society achieves power and privilege through the control and exploitation of other groups, which are burdened and pushed down into the lower levels of the social order
The other
viewed as being unlike the dominant group in profoundly different, usually negative ways
passing
refers to a subordinate-group member who successfully pretends to be a dominant-group member
Patriarchy
hierarchical system that promotes male supremacy
Politics
any collective action that is intended to support, influence, or change social policy or social structures
Prejudice
negative attitudes toward a specific group of people
privilege
means that some groups have something of value that is denied to others simply because of the groups they belong to; these unearned advantages give some groups a head start in seeking a better life
racial group
social group that is socially defined as having certain biological characteristics that set it apart from other groups, often in invidious ways
racial ideology
racially-based framework used by actors to explain and justify (dominant race) or challenge (subordinate race or races) the racial status quo
racism
system of oppression based on race
role
expected behavior that goes along with a specific status
sex
physical and biological differences between the categories of male and female
sexism
system of oppression based on gender
sexual behavior
whom we have sex with
sexual identification
what people call themselves
sexual orientation
determined by to whom we are attracted sexually, physically, and emotionally
social constructionist
perspective that argues that reality cannot be separated from the way a culture makes sense of it - that meaning is "constructed" through social, political, legal, scientific, and the other processes
social mobility
refers to individuals moving up or down in terms of their class level
status
refers to a position that one holds or a category that one occupies in a society
stereotypes
cultural beliefs about a particular group that are usually highly exaggerated and distorted, even though they may have a grain of truth
stigma
an attribute for which someone is considered bad, unworthy, or deeply discredited because of the category that he or she belongs to
straight
heterosexual people
stratification
refers to the way in which societies are marked by inequality, by differences among people that are regarded as being higher or lower
structural discrimination
policies of dominant-group institutions, and the behavior of the individuals who implement these policies and control these institutions, that are race/class/gender/sexuality neutral in intent but that have a differential and/or harmful effect on subordinate groups
subordinate group
a social group that lacks control of the political, economic, and cultural institutions in a society
transgendered
people who feel that their gender identity doesn't match their physiological body
transsexuals
people who have had sex change operations
transvestites
people who like to cross-dress, that is, wear clothes that are culturally appropriate to the opposite sex
wealth
assets that people own and is often expressed in terms of net worth