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44 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
People who share space temporarily at the same time.
People who share frequent interaction and a sense of belonging.
Primary group
People who share intimate, face-to-face interaction.
Secondary group
Larger, more anonymous, more impersonal group.
Voluntary association
People who organize based upon some mutual interest.
Reference group
A group we use to evaluate ourselves
Social network
Links between people (friends, family, acquaintances, friends of friends, etc.)
Electronic community
New kind of human group for people who meet on the Internet. In existence since about 1994.
Tendency of businesses or organizations to copy the McDonald's model. Refers to today's BUREAUCRACY.
Weber on bureaucracy:
A critic. He said rules and red tape would come to govern us themselves: RATIONALIZATION OF SOCIETY.
Group dynamics: Size vs. stability
A dyad is small and intense, but fragile. A group of three can have coalitions.
Group dynamics: Effect of group size on attitudes and behavior
As a group gets larger, people feel less responsible for leadership.
Types of leadership
INSTRUMENTAL: keeping the group on task.
EXPRESSIVE: inspires people to do more.
Styles of leadership
AUTHORITARIAN: enjoying being in charge.
DEMOCRATIC: seeking group consensus (INCLUSIVE).
FAIR: Hands-off and permissive.
Asch experiment.
Studied peer pressure. It showed that people will lie if their peeers do.
Milgram experiment
Studied teachers and learners and the pressure people feel from authority figures.
A rush to judgment. COLLECTIVE TUNNEL VISION. Associated with bad political decisions.
A violation of norms (or RULES). They're rule-breakers.
Minor deviance
Non-criminal; things such as weird hair or body odor.
Major deviance
Deviance that violates the law. It is the major part of deviancy?
Deviance and culture
What is deviant in one culture is normal in another.
Differential association theory
Deviancy is learned behavior from social interaction.
Labeling theory
One to whom the deviant label has been applied.
Chambliss: The Saints and Roughnecks
Study of deviancy among two high-school groups
Durkheim on deviance
Deviancy is good because it sets a strong boundary between good and bad people.
Strain theory
Goals and means. Find chart.
Conflict theory
Law is an instrument of oppression. Leftist theory that says the rich form laws to control the poor.
White-collar crime
Crimes committed by upper-status people in the course of their occupation (Martha Stewart).
Hate crime
crime motivated by hatred or bias. Extreme prejudice.
Four categories of hate crime:
1. Race
2. Religion
3. Sexual orientation
4. Disability status
Who developed the McDonaldization theory?
George Ritzer. He sees it as today's most prominent bureaucratic form.
Which is stronger: a dyad or triad?
A triad. As groups get larger, the number of relationships among the group increases. A group of 10 can have 45 relationships, so people can lead without the group falling apart.
What happens as group size increases?
Stability increases, but intimacy decreases.
Diffusion of responsibility
The effect of group size on attitudes and behavior. People feel less responsible for their actions in large groups (rioters, looters).
Examples of expressive leaders
Team captains or class presidents
Asch experiment
The experimenter formed a coalition with boys who then lied about something obvious, blah blah ...
Milgram experiment
Showed that people caved in to authority figures who told them to give people what they thought were lethal shocks. 65% complied.
Which case prompted questions about research ethics?
Milgram experiment. People were released from the study still thinking they had actually shocked people to death.
People of the Amazon Valley who have VIOLENT behavior and HYGIENE habits that are deviant in our own culture. Smoke weed that makes their noses run. Ax fights, pillaging, violent marriages.
What does differential association say about choosing good associates?
Choosing your associates is important, because you will conform to their behavior.
Labeling theory
People are labeled from false accusations. The theory isn't about one's behavior, but society's REACTION to it. Deviant labels make people live down to them.
What did the Saints vs. Roughnecks study show?
Both groups did the same things, but the roughnecks got the deviant label. The Saints were of a higher social class, so they could afford cars to aid them in their deviancy. Without cars, the Roughnecks were more visible, etc.
Durkheim on deviancy:
High rates of deviancy are OK, because it shows that a group has a strong sense of right and wrong.