Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/95

Click to flip

95 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Society
The totality of people and social relations in a given geographic space.
NA
Ideal Type
The pure form of something (like a beauracracy).
Not necessarily the best but...
Institution
An accepted and persistent constellation of statuses, roles, values, and norms that respond to important societal needs.
NA
Social Institutions
The answers to society's needs.
We need children so...
Habitualized
Following routine and continuing that routine simply because it's habit.
NA
Monarchy
Rule by king or queen
NA
Aristocracy
Rule by the 'best' few.
NA
Tyranny
Rule by an absolute or oppressive leader.
NA
Theocracy
Rule by God or God's representative.
NA
Representative Democracy
Rule by representati've's of the people.
NA
Animism
The idea that a life force exists in all living beings and that people should live in harmony with all natural things.
NA
Monotheism
The belief in a single supernatural sacred being.
NA
Polytheism
The belief in many gods.
NA
Monogamous
One wife and one husband.
NA
Polygamous
Multiple spouses of one sex to one of the other sex.
NA
Polygyny
Multiple wives for one husband.
NA
Polyandry
Multiple husbands for one wife.
NA
Social Need: Have a continuing supply of new members
Social Instituion: ?
Family
NA
Social Need: Socialize new members
Social Institution: ?
Family, education, religion
NA
Social Need: Deal with members' sickness and health issues
Social Institution: ?
Medicine
NA
Social Need: Select members for certain jobs and tasks
Social Institution: ?
Education, labor market
NA
Social Need: Create knowledge
Social Institution: ?
Science, religion
NA
Social Need: Control its members
Social Institution: ?
Law enforcement, judicial system, religion
NA
Social Need: Defend against its enemies
Social Institution: ?
Government, military
NA
Social Need: Produce and exchange goods and services
Social Institution: ?
Economic system
NA
Social Need: Promote social unity and search for higher meanings
Social Institution: ?
Education, religion, politics
NA
Most ALLOWED type of marriage.
Polygyny
Not necessarily practiced.
Most PRACTICED type of marriage.
Monogamy
Not necessarily allowed.
Least allowed and practiced type of marriage.
Polyandry.
NA
"No group, no matter how large, qualifies as a society unless..."
it provides the resources to answer all of its members' basic needs.
NA
Five attributes social institutions have in common.
1. They respond to societal needs.
2. Are generally unplanned; they develop gradually.
3. Are inherently conservative; they change, but slowly.
4. A particular society's institutions are interdependent; change in one brings change in another.
5. The statuses, roles, values, and norms in one society likely bear little resemblance to those in another.
NA
"Routine behavior is the way we do it, but institutionalized behavior is..."
the way it must be done.
NA
"Institutions survive only if..."
their rightness can be explained as both reasonable and natural.
NA
"Although institutions are conservative..."
change does occur. From technology, economy, or even wars.
NA
Atavists
Evolutionary throwbacks.
NA
Ectomorphs
A body type including tallness, thinness, and fragility (tall, thin, fragile).
NA
Endomorphs
A body type including shortness and fatness (short and fat).
NA
Mesomorphs
A body type including muscularity and athleticism (muscular and athletic). The one most likely to be a criminal according to old research.
NA
Egoism
Occurs when people are not well integrated into society.
NA
Anomie
A state wherein society fails to exercise adequate regulation of the goals and desires of individual members.
NA
Conformity
An adaptation to society in which a person continues to accept the goals and ideals of society and the methods for achieving them, whether or not it works for them or not.
NA
Innovation
An adaptation where a person accepts the goals and ideals of society but rejects the methods for achieving them.
NA
Ritualism
An adaptation where a person rejects the goals and ideals of society but continues to follow the methods of achieving them.
NA
Retreatists
An adaptation where a person rejects the ideals and goals of society and also the methods for achieving them.
NA
Rebellion
An adaptation where a person rejects the ideals and goals of society and the methods for achieving them AND substitutes news methods.
NA
q
q
w
w
we
Primary deviance
The initial crime.
Secondary deviance
Subsequent acts of deviance.
Stigma
Any attribute that discredits a person or disqualifies him or her from full social acceptance.
Cesare Lombroso
Argued the theory that criminals were "physical throwbacks."
William Sheldon
Argued that there were three body types (ectomorphs, endomorphs, and mesomorphs) and mesomorphs were most likely criminals.
Cloward and Ohlin
Argued that illegitimate methods to success are unequally distributed just like legitimate means.
Howard Becker
Studied marijuana use.
Erving Goffman
Argued that the stigma of negative social labels can ruin a person's identity.
Social stratification
The evaluation-ranking-reward system and its results (aka rich people get rewards, poor people get punished).
Strata
social layers
Caste system
One's rank is determined at birth (ascribed).
Transmigration
aka reincarnation. It is the idea that each person is born into a caste because of actions in a previous life.
Karma
A Sanskrit word for "work" or "fate."
Dharma
caste-based duties.
Estate system
Place in the hierarchy is determined at birth with little contact with the upper/lower levels.
Social Class system
In theory, best work to the top and weaker stay or move to the bottom.
Bourgeoisie
"shopkeeper" or the capitalist/owner stratum.
Proletariat
Roman term for the lowest class of people - used for workers by evil man.
Power
the probability that one actor within a social relationship will be in a position to carry out his own will despite resistance.
Authority
power that is seen as justified aka legitimate power.
Status
the degree to which an individual has social honor.
Self-enslavement
selling oneself into slavery in order to overcome debt.
Socioeconomic standing
Measures of your status.
Chattel slavery
Slaves treated sa if they are property.
Open and closed stratification systems
you can have mobility or not in the ranks.
Social mobility
the ability to move about the system.
horizontal mobility
the ability to move from one job to another in your own stratum.
vertical mobility
the ability to move up and down through the strata.
Intergenerational mobility
the change of the stratifcation system iby different generations
intragenerational mobility
the movement of one person through the strata.
karl marx
a stupid butt face who caused thousands of deaths, tons of persecution, hate, crime, evilness, poverty, cruelty amond other things.
income
the amount of money a person/family receives in money etc.
wealth
the total value of assets owned by an individual or family minus the debt they have.q
matthew effect
rich get richer, poor get poorer.
cultural explanations
the norms and culture of the different clsases and then the fact tht the poor are out of whack with the rich.
Culture of poverty
a neverending cycle of being poor.
structural explanations
poor have limited access.
blaming the victim
it's bad.
tracking
schools follow a child's progress.
structural mobility
changes in the social structure of society.
prejudice
prejudgment
stereotypes
oversimplified generaliztaions
discrimination
prejudgments with ACTION
individual discrimination
one person discriminating
institutional discrimination
an instituion discriminating
ethnicity
cultural
race
skin related
arapesh
both men and women "maternal"