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24 Cards in this Set

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People who interact in a defined territory and share a culture
Society
Lenski's term for the changes that occur as a society acquires new technology
Socioculture evolution
The use of simple tools to hunt animals and gather vegetation
Hunting and gathering
The use of hand tools to raise crops
Horticulture
The domestication of animals
Pastoralism
Large-scale cultivation using plows harnessed to animals or more powerful energy sources
Agriculture
The production of goods using advanced sources of energy to drive large machinery
Industrialism
Technology that supports an information - based econonmy
Postindustrialism
The struggle between segments of soceity over valued resources
Social conflict
People who own and operate factories and other businesses in pursuit of profits
Capitalists
People who sell their productive labor for wages
Proletarians
The major spheres of social life, or societal subsystems, organized to meet human needs
Social institutions
Marx's term for explanations of social problems as the shortcomings of individuals rather than as the flaws of soceity
False Consciousness
Conflict between entire classes over the distribution of a society's wealth and power
Class conflict
Marx's term for workers' recognition of themselves as a class unified in opposition to capitalists and, ultimately, to capitalism itself
Class consciousness
The experience of isolation and misery resulting from powerlessness
Alienation
An abstract statement of the essential characteristics of any social phenomenon
Ideal type
Sentiments and beliefs passed from generation to generation
Tradition
A way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact claculation of the most efficient means to accomplish a particular task
Rationality
Weber's term for the historical change from tradition to rationality as the dominant mode of human thought
Rationalization of society
Durkheim's designation of a condition in which society provides little moral guidance to individulas
Anomie
Durkheim's term for social bonds, based on common sentiments and shared moral values, that are stron among members of preindustrial societies
Mechanical solidarity
Durkheim's term for social bonds, based on specialization and interdependence, that are strong among members of industrial societies
Organic Solidarity
Specialized economic activity
Division of labor