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32 Cards in this Set

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A logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
Science
The study of society based on systematic observation of social behavior
Sceintific Sociology
Information we can verify with our senses
Empirical evidence
A mental construct that represents asome part of the world in a simplified form
Concept
A procedure for determining the value of a variable in a specific case
Measurement
Specifying exactly what one is to measure before assigning a value to a variable
Operationalize a variable
Consistency in measurement
Reliabliity
Actually measureing exactly what one intends to measure
Validity
A relationship in which change in one variable (the independent variable) cause change in another (the dependent variable)
Cause and effect
A variable that causes change in another (dependent) variable
Independent variable
A variable that is changed by another (independent) variable
Dependent variable
A relationship in which two (or more) variables change together
Correlation
An apparent, although false, relationship between two (or more) variables caused by some other variable
Spurious correlation
Holding constant all variables except one in order to see clearly the effect of that variable
Control
Personal neutrality in conducting research
Objectivity
Repetition of research by other investigators
Replication
The study of society that focuses on the meanings people attach to their social world
Interpretive sociology
The study of society that focuses on the need for social change
Critical sociology
The personal traits and social positions that members of society attach to being female and male
Gender
A systematic plan for conducting research
Research Method
A research method of investigating cause and effect under highly controlled conditions
Experiment
An unverified statement of a relationhip between variables
Hypothesis
A change in a subject's behavior caused simply by the awareness of being studied
Hawthorne effect
A research method in which sugbjects repond to a series of statements or questions in a questionnaire or an interview
Survey
The people who are the focus of research
Population
A part of a population that represents the whole
Sample
A series of written questions a researcher presents to subjects
Questionnaire
A series of questions a researcher administers in person to respondents
Interview
A research method in which investigators systematically obserce people while joining them in their routine activities
Participant observation
A research method in which a researcher uses data collected by others
Secondary Analysis
Reasoning that transforms specific observations into general theory
Inductive logical thought
Reasoning that transform general theory into specific hypothesis suitable for testing
Deductive logical thought