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80 Cards in this Set

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altruistic suicide
type of suicide that occurs where ties to the group or community are more important than individual ex. cults
anomic suicide
suicide that occurs when the structure of the society is weakened or disrupted and people feel hopeless
comparative method
compares exisiting official statistics and historical records across groups to test a theory about the same social phenomenon. ex. Durkheim
egoistic suicide
a type of suicide where the individual is stressed over lack of group and community connections ex. no wife, kids, weak bonds
individualistic explanation
tendency to attribute peoples achievements and failures to personal qualities
sociological imagination
ability to see the impact of social forces onour private lives ex. unemployment, divorce,
structural functionalist perspective
focuses on the way various parts of a society are sturctured and interrrelated to maintain stability and order ex. Talcott Parsons, and Neil Smelser ex. education, industry, reproduction
conflict perspective
various elements in society promote inequality and conflict among groups of people.
Symbolic Interactionism
seeks to understand society and social structure through interactions of people and the ways in which they subjectively define their worlds. ex. the micro level, day-to-day things
ascribed status
status received @ birth or taken involuntarily later on in life
coalition
a sub group formed when two other members unite against a third member ex. siblings
culture
language, customs, beliefs, rules, expectations, that characterize a society
dyad
a group of two people ex. spouses
group
set of people who interact more or less regularly and who are conscious of identity as a unit ex. family, club, sports
latent function
unintended, unrecognized consequences of activites designed to help some part of the social system ex. friendship in college helps to form the mannerisms of a person
manifest function
intended consequence of an activity to imrove society ex. going to college to get a degree
norm
standard of conduct ex. chewing with your mouth closed
organization
large, complex network of positions created for a specific purpose and characterized by a hierarchical division of labor ex. blue collar
primary group
direct contact and emotional attachment ex. friends, family
role
set of expectations, rights, obligations asscoiated with a particular status
social institution
, stable set of roles, statuses, groups and organizations ex. education, politics, economics, health care
status
named social position that people occupyex. daughter, cook, girlfriend, parent
value
standard of judgement by which people decide on desirable goals and outcomes
content analysis
form of unobtrusive research that studies the content of messages, such as books, speeches, poems, songs, ex. to see the way in which african children were portrayed
dependent variable
variable that is assumed to be caused by, or to change as a result of the independent variable ex. attitude toward abortion
empirical research
research that operates from the ideological position that questions can be answered only through controlled, systematic observations in the real world
historical analysis
research that relies on historical documents as a source of data
incorrigible proposition
unquestioned cultural belief that cannot be proved wrong no matter what happens to dispute it ex. apocalypse
indicator
measurable event, characteristic, or behavior cmmonly thought to reflect a particular aspect ex. turning in homework an indicator of effort
moral entrepeneur
group that works to have its concerns translated into law ex. abolitionists, pro-choicers
manifest function
intended consequence of an activity to imrove society ex. going to college to get a degree
norm
standard of conduct ex. chewing with your mouth closed
organization
large, complex network of positions created for a specific purpose and characterized by a hierarchical division of labor ex. blue collar
primary group
direct contact and emotional attachment ex. friends, family
role
set of expectations, rights, obligations asscoiated with a particular status
social institution
, stable set of roles, statuses, groups and organizations ex. education, politics, economics, health care
status
named social position that people occupyex. daughter, cook, girlfriend, parent
value
standard of judgement by which people decide on desirable goals and outcomes
content analysis
form of unobtrusive research that studies the content of messages, such as books, speeches, poems, songs, ex. to see the way in which african children were portrayed
dependent variable
variable that is assumed to be caused by, or to change as a result of the independent variable ex. attitude toward abortion
empirical research
research that operates from the ideological position that questions can be answered only through controlled, systematic observations in the real world
historical analysis
research that relies on historical documents as a source of data
incorrigible proposition
unquestioned cultural belief that cannot be proved wrong no matter what happens to dispute it ex. apocalypse
indicator
measurable event, characteristic, or behavior cmmonly thought to reflect a particular aspect ex. turning in homework an indicator of effort
moral entrepeneur
group that works to have its concerns translated into law ex. abolitionists, pro-choicers
manifest function
intended consequence of an activity to imrove society ex. going to college to get a degree
norm
standard of conduct ex. chewing with your mouth closed
organization
large, complex network of positions created for a specific purpose and characterized by a hierarchical division of labor ex. blue collar
primary group
direct contact and emotional attachment ex. friends, family
role
set of expectations, rights, obligations asscoiated with a particular status
social institution
, stable set of roles, statuses, groups and organizations ex. education, politics, economics, health care
status
named social position that people occupyex. daughter, cook, girlfriend, parent
value
standard of judgement by which people decide on desirable goals and outcomes
content analysis
form of unobtrusive research that studies the content of messages, such as books, speeches, poems, songs, ex. to see the way in which african children were portrayed
dependent variable
variable that is assumed to be caused by, or to change as a result of the independent variable ex. attitude toward abortion
empirical research
research that operates from the ideological position that questions can be answered only through controlled, systematic observations in the real world
historical analysis
research that relies on historical documents as a source of data
incorrigible proposition
unquestioned cultural belief that cannot be proved wrong no matter what happens to dispute it ex. apocalypse
indicator
measurable event, characteristic, or behavior cmmonly thought to reflect a particular aspect ex. turning in homework an indicator of effort
moral entrepeneur
group that works to have its concerns translated into law ex. abolitionists, pro-choicers
probabalistic
capable of identifying only those forces that have a high likelihood, but not a certainty ex. x will not ALWAYS equal y. btu most of the time
quantative research
sociological research based on non-numerical info ex. text, words, symbols, written observations
representative
typical of the whole pop being studied
sample
subgroup chosen for a study b/c the chracteristics will approximate for the whole group
self-fulfilling prophecy
assumption or perdiction that causes the expected event to occur ex. toy sales
social construction of reality
process through which the members of a society discover, make known, reaffirm and alter facts, knowledge and "truth" ex. dont let a baby sit in your lab, etc
unobtrusive research
research where the researcher examines evidence of social behavior that peole leave behind. ex. a footprint?, the dent in front of the fridge
variable
any characteristic, attitude behavior, or event that can take two or more values or attributes
visual sociology
method of studying society that uses photos, video and film either as data or sources about social life.
ethnocentrism
tendency to judge other's standards using one's own personal judgement ex. trying to convert a buddhist, Hitler
folkway
informal norm that is mildly punished when violated. ex. chewing with mouth open
institutionalized norm
pattern of behavior within exisiting social situations that is widely accepted in society ex. going to college
material culture
artifacts of a society which represent adaptations to the social and physical environment ex. clothes, cars, technology
more (mor ayz)
highly codified, formal systemized norm that brings severe punishment when violated ex. killing someone
nonmaterial culture
knowledge, beliefs, customs that are sharedby members of a societyand distinguish the society from others
sanction
social response that punishes or otherwise discourages violations of a social norm. ex. the public execution of that one guy
sick role
set of norms that one is supposed to behave like when one is sick. ex. not behaving normally but also seeking out professional help and medication
subculture
values, behaviors an artifacts of a group that distinguish its members from the larger culture
Stanley Miligram
This man set out to answer this question. He wanted to know how far people would go in ordering the commands of an authority with a 450 watt flip switch. the results were that people generally listen to authorities
Stanley Miligram
This man set out to answer this question. He wanted to know how far people would go in ordering the commands of an authority with a 450 watt flip switch. the results were that people generally listen to authorities