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118 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Education
The process through which academic, social, and cultural ideas and tools, both general and specific, are developed
Hidden Curriculum
The nonacademic socialization and training that take place in the schooling systems
Social Report
Any relationship between people that can facilitate the actions of others
Tracking
A way of dividing students into different classes by ability of future plans
Credentialism
An overemphasis on credentials (e.g college degrees) for signaling social status or qualification for a job.
Affirmative Action
A set of policies that grant preferential treatment to a number of particular subgroups within the population - typically, women and historically disadvantaged racial minorities
Social Class (Socioeconomic Status)
An individual's position in a stratified social order
Cultural capital
Symbolic and interactional resources that people use to their advantage in various situations
Stereotype threat
When members of a negatively stereotyped group are placed in a situation where they fear they may confirm those stereotypes
Resource dilution model
Hypothesis stating that parental resource are finite and that each additional child dilutes them
Capitalism
Economic system in which property and goods are primaril owned privately; investments are determined by private decisions; and prices, production, and the distribution of goods are determined primarily by competition in a free market
Feudalism
Economic system characterized by the presence of lords, vassals, serfs, and fiefs
Agricultural revolution
The introduction of new farming technologies that increased food output in farm production
Corporation
A legal entity unto itself that has a legal personhood distinct from that of its members - namely, its owners, and shareholders
Alienation
A condition in which people are dominated by forces of their own creation that then confront them as alien powers; according to Marx, the basic state of being in a capitalist society
Socialism
An economic system in which most or all the needs of the population are met through non-market methods of distribution
Communism
A political ideology of a classless society in which the means of production are shared thorough state ownership and in which rewards are not tied to productivity but need
Family Wage
A wage paid to male workers sufficient to support a dependent wife and children
Service sector
the economic activity that involves providing intangible services
Champagne-glass distribution
The unequal, global distribution of income, so named for its shape
Monopoly
The form of business that occurs when there's only one seller of a good or service in the market, leading to zero competition
Oligopoly
The condition when only a handful of firms exist in a particular market
Offshoring
A business decision to move all or part of a company's operations overseas to minimize costs
Union
The organization that forms when workers formally unite with the common aim of collective bargaining
Union busting
A company's assault on its workers' union with the hope of dissolving it
Politics
Power relations among people or other social actors
Authority
The justifiable right to exercise power
Charismatic authority
authority that rests in the superhuman appeal of an individual leader
Traditional authority
Authority based on appeals to past tradition
Legal-rational authority
A system of authority based on legal impersonal rules; the rules rule
Routinization
The clear, rule-governed procedures used repeatedly for decision making
Rationalization
An ever-expanding process of ordering or organizing
Bureaucracy
A legal-rational organization or mode of administration that governs with reference to rules and roles and which emphasizes meritocracy
Specialization
The process of making work consist of specific, delimited tasks
Taylorism
The methods of labor management introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor to streamline the processes of mass production in which each worker repeatedly performs one specific task
Meritocracy
A society that bases status and mobility on individual attributes, ability, and achievements
Milgram experiment
An experiment devised by 1961 by Stanley Milgram, a psychologist at Yale University, to see how far ordinary people would go to obey a scientific authority figure
Power
The ability to carry out one's own will despite resistiance
Domination
The probability that a command with specific content will be obeyed by a given group of people
State
As defined by Weber, 'a human community that (successfully) claims the monopoly of the legitimate use of physical force within a given territory'
Coercion
The use of force to get others to do what you want
Paradox of authority
Althought the state's authority derives from the implicit threat of physical force resorting to coercion strips the state of all legitimate authority
International state system
A system in which each state is recognized as a territorially sovereign by fellow states
Welfare state
A system in which the state is responsible for the well-being of its citizens
Citizenship rights
The rights guaranteed to each law-abiding citizen in a nation-state
Civil rights
the rights guaranteeing a citizens
s personal freedom from interference, including freedom of speech and the right to travel freely
Political rights
The rights guaranteeing a citizen's ability to participate in politics, including the right to the and the right to hold an elected office
Social rights
The rights guaranteeing citizen's protection by the state
Soft power
Power attained through the use of cultural attractiveness rather than the threat of coercive action (hard power)
Democracy
A system of government wherein power theoretically lies with the people; citizens are allowed to vote in elections, speak freely, and participate as legal equals in social life
Dictatorship
A form of government that restricts the right to political participation to a small group or even to a single individual
Game theory
The study of strategic decisions under conditions of uncertainty and interdependence
Collective action problem
The difficulty in organizing large groups because of the tendency of some individuals to freeload or slack off
Political party
An organization that seeks to gain power in a government; generally by backing candidates for office who subscribe (to the extent possible) to the organization's political ideals
interest group
An organization that seeks to gain power in government and influence policy without direct election or appointment to office
Political participation
Activity that has the intent or effect of influencing ogvernment action
Civil religion
A set of sacred beliefs so commonly accepted by most people that it becomes part of the national culture
Religion
A system of beliefs and practices around sacred things, a set of shared "stories" that guide belief and action
Sacred
Holy things meant for special use and kept separate from the profane; the sacred realm is unknowable and mystical, so it inspires us with feelings of aw and wonder
Profane
The things of mundane everyday life
Theism
The worship of a god or gods, as in Christianity, Islam, and Hinduism
Ethicalism
The adherence to certain principles to lead a moral life, as in Buddhism and Taoism
Animism
The belief that spirits roam the natural world, as in totemism
Denominations
Big groups of congregations that share the same faith and are governed under one administrative umbrella
Congregation
Groups of people that gather together, especially for worship
Secularism
A general movement away from relgiostiy and spiritual beleif toward a rational, scientific orientation, a trend adopted by industrialized nations in the form of separation of church and state
Pluralism
The presence and engaged coexistence of numerous distinct groups in one society
Sacred canopy
Peter Berger's term to describe the entire set of relgious norms, symbols, and beliefs taht express the most imporrtant thing in life - naemley, the feeling that life is worth living and that reality is meaningful and ordered, not the random chaos of the stars
Evangelicals
Members of any protestant denomination distinguished by four main beliefs: the Bible is without error, salvation comes only through belief in Jesus Christ, personal conversion is teh only path to salvation (the "born again" experience), and others must also be converted. They proselytize b engaging with wider society.
Fundamentalists
Relgious adherents who follow a scripture (such as the Bible or Qur'an) using a literal interpretation of its meaning
Religious experience
An individual's experience of spiritual feelings and acts
Reflexive spirituality
A contemporary religious movement that encourages followers to look to religion for meaning, wisdom, and profound thought and feeling rather than for absolute truths on how the world works
Megachurch
Typically a conservative protestant church that attracts at least 2,000 worshipers per week
Supernatural compensators
Promises of future rewards, such as salvation or eternity in heaven
Churches
Religious bodies that coexist in a relatively low state of tension with their social surroundings. They have mainstream or "safe" beliefs and practices relative to those of the general population
Sects (Sectarian groups)
High tension organizations that don't fit in so well within the existing social environment. They are usually most attractive to society's least privileged - outcasts, minorities, or the poor- because they renounce worldly pleasures by stressing outwordly promises
Cult
Religious movement that makes some new claim about the supernatural and therefore does not as easily fit within the sect-church style
Stratification
Structured social inequality or, more specifically, systematic inequalities between groups of people that arise as intended or unintended consequences of social processes and relationship
Social equality
A condition whereby no differences in wealth, power, prestige, or status based on nonnatural convention exist
Dialectic
A two-directional relationship, one that goes both ways
Ontological equality
the notion that everyone is created equal in the eyes of God
Equalitiy of opportunity
The idea that inequality of condition is acceptable so long as the rules of the game, so to speak, remain fair
Bourgeois society
a society of commerce (modern capitalist society, for example) in which the maximization of profit is the primary business incentive
Equality of condition
the idea that everyone should ave an equal starting point
Equality of outcome
A position that argues each player must end up with the same amount regardless of the fairness of the "game"
Free rider problem
The notion that when more than one person is responsbile for getting something done, the incentive is for each individual to shirk responsibility and hop others will pull the extra weight
Estate system
Politically based system of stratification characterized by limited social mobility
Caste system
Religion-based system of stratification characterized by no social mobility
Class system
Economically based system of stratification characterized by relative categorization and somewhat loose social mobility
Proletariat
The working class
Bourgeoisie
The capitalist class
Contradictory class locations
The idea that people can occupy locations in the class structure which fall between hte two "pure" classes
Status hierarchy system
A system of stratification based on social prestige
Elite-mass dichotomy system
System of stratification that has a governing elite, a few leaders who broadly hold the power of society
Meritocracy
A society where status and mobility are based on individual attributes, ability, and achievement
Socioeconomic status
An individual's position in a stratified social order
income
Money received by person for work or from returns on investments
wealth
A family's or individual's net worth (that is, total assets minus total debts)
Upper class
A term for the economic elite
Middle class
A term commonly used to describe those individuals with nonmanual jobs that pay significanty more than the poverty line - though this is a highly debated and expansive category, particularly in the United States, where broad swathes of the population consider themselves middle class
Social mobility
the movement between different positions within a system of social stratification in any given society
Structural mobility
Mobility that is inevitable from changes in the economy
Status attainment model
Approach that ranks individuals by socioeconomic status, including income and educational attainment, and seeks to specific the attributes characteristic of people who end up in more desirable occupations
female circumcision
the removal of a woman's sexually sensitive clitoris
Feminism
An intellectual conciousness-raising movement to get people to understand that gender is an organizing principle of life. The underlying belief is that women and men should be accorded equal opportunities and respect
Sex
The biological differences that distinguish male from female
Sexuality
Refers to desire, sexual preference, sexual identity, and behavior
Gender
Denotes a social position, the set of social arrangements, that are built around sex categories
Essentialism
Line of thought that explains social phenomena in terms of natural ones
Biological determinism
A line of thought that explains a social behavior terms of biological givens
Hegemonic masculinity
Dominant and privileged, if invisible, category of men
Gender roles
Sets of behavioral norms assumed to accompany one's status as a male or female
Patriarchy
A nearly universal system involving the subordination of femininity to masculinity
Structural functionalism
Theoretical tradition claiming that every society has certain structures (the family, the divisions of labor, or gender) which exist in order to fulfill some set of functions (reproduction of the species, production of goods, etc)
Sex role theory
Talcott Parson's theory that men and women perform their sec roles as breadwinners and wives/mothers, respetiviely, because the nuclear family is the ideal arrangement in modern societies, fulfilling the function of reproducing workers,
homosexual
the social identity of a person who has sexual attraction to and/or relations with other persons of the same sex
sexism
Occurs when a person's sex or gender is the basis for judgement, discrimination, and hatred against him or her
sexual harassment
an illegal form of discrimination, involving everything from inappropriate jokes on the ob to outright sexual assault to sexual "barter" - all intended to make women feel uncomfortable and unwelcome particularly on the job