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69 Cards in this Set

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biological categories (e.g., female and male).
sex
positions and personal traits that society attaches to each sex.
gender
man are __% taller than women
10%
men are __% heavier than women
25%
men are __% stronger than women
30%
life expectancies in men and women
men - 74.1 yrs
women - 79.5 yrs
A form of social organization in which males dominate females.
Patriarchy [“rule of the fathers”]
A form of social organization in which females dominate males.
Matriarchy [“rule of the mothers”]
prejudice and discrimination against females.
sexism
when people are treated unequally in the social structures of society based on their sex.
instituational sexism
Sexism is built into social institutions such as?
military, religion
the unequal distribution of wealth, power, and privilege between women and men.
Gender(sex)stratification
Gender Stratification in...
Hunting & Gathering Societies
women compared to men was roughly equal
Gender Stratification in...
Horticultural & Pastoral Societies
women status starts to decline
Gender Stratification in...
Agrarian Societies
women status is at its ultimate low (men are doing business)
Gender Stratification in...
Industrial Societies
womens status is low at first but then starts to rise
Gender Stratification in...
Postindustrial Societies
in working class womens status is not very high, but if women were educated then they were pretty equal with men
Overall, women of all races make about __ cents for every dollar made by men.
78
Assert that traditional gender roles benefit society (e.g., women fulfilling “expressive” tasks and men fulfilling “instrumental” tasks).
Functionalists
Asserts that individuals vary in how much “human capital” they bring to the labor market (human capital = education, job experience). People’s earnings reflect a combination of their personal choices and the current supply & demand of certain kinds of jobs.
The Human Capital Model
According to The Human Capital Model, what happens to women’s human capital when they leave the workforce?
it goes down
Assert that gender stratification results from patriarchy – which exists in order to keep men in powerful positions and women in subordinate ones.
Conflict perspectives
How would Mark (& Engels) view traditional marriage?
if you aren't making the money then you aren't going to have the power
Does patriarchy influence our everyday lives and social opportunities (in business, at home, socially, politically)? ($, power??)
Yes!!
attitudes and activities that a society links to each sex.
 
gender roles (sex roles)
Women are more involved in religious organizations and pray more often, but men occupy positions of power more often. Yet, in some denominations women are in power positions, e.g., some Protestant & Jewish organizations.
Interestingly, the early women’s movement was spurred largely by women who were quite religious…
religion
people of same age
peer group
(radio, advertising, films, television, books, etc.) Until the 1970’s women hardly appeared in shows
mass media
the advocacy of social equality for men and women, in opposition to patriarchy and sexism.
feminism
A social institution found in all societies that unites people in cooperative groups to oversee the bearing and socializing of children
family
A social network based on common ancestry, marriage, or adoption
kinship
The family into which a person is born or adopted and socialized is called a…
family of orientation
The family that a person forms by having or adopting children is called a…
family of procreation
Persons who are not related by blood or adoption by who are accepted as family members are called…
“families we choose” (Judy Root Aulette)
(Also called “Family of choice”)
A family unit composed of relatives in addition to parents and children who live in the same household is called an…
extended family
A family unit composed of one or two parents and their dependent children, apart from other relatives is called a…
nuclear family
A legally recognized and/or socially approved arrangement between 2 or more individuals that carries certain rights and obligations and usually involves sexual activity.
marriage
How would postmodernists understand and explain families?
families are a lot more diverse
What are possible consequences of technology on family life according to postmodernists?
sgent of socialization (tv), less family time and interaction
2 people living together as a couple without being legally married.
cohabitation
Cohabitation with the same rights and benefits as accorded to married heterosexual couples.
Domestic partnership
a legal process thru which the rights and duties of parenting are transferred from a child’s biological and/or legal parents to a new legal parent or parents.
adoption
Why has adoption of U. S. babies decreased in recent decades?
because of abortion, contraception, adoption overseas
Why has remaining single increased in recent years?
more sociably acceptable, educational attainment, other rewarding circumstance
Children in Foster Care – Why is the # staying in foster care increasing??
the decrease in adoptions, adoption of babies is greater than older children
Macro-sociological causes of divorce:
Greater opportunities for women to be economically self-sufficient
Legally, divorces are easier to obtain (no fault-based systems exist)
Less cultural stigma on divorce
the social institution responsible for the systematic transmission of knowledge, skills, and cultural values within a formally organized structure
Which theoretical perspective is most reflected in the above definition?
education; functionalist
_____________ view education as an institution having “manifest” (recognized, intended) functions as well as “latent” (hidden) functions.
Functionalists
open, stated, and intended goals or consequences of activities within an organization or institution. In educationthese are socialization, transmission of culture, social control, social placement, change and innovation.
Manifest functions
hidden, unstated, and sometimes unintended consequences of activities within an organiztion. In education these include matchmaking and social networks, restricting some activities, creating a generation gap.
Latent functions
______ ________ assert that formal education perpetuates social stratification and inequality. How so?
Conflict theorists;
eduction maintains class structure
_______ _______ claims that people have different amounts of “cultural capital”
Pierre Bourdieu
If children from middle and upper social class backgrounds faced financial difficulty in adulthood, would they still be relatively advantaged (from Bourdieu’s conflict view)?
yes because of networking.
_______ _______ emphasize communication and labeling that is part of formal education.
Symbolic Interactionists
An unsubstantiated belief or prediction resulting in behavior that makes the originally false belief come true
Self-fulfilling prophecy
A system of beliefs, symbols, and rituals, based on some sacred or supernatural realm, that guides human behavior, gives meaning to life, and unites believers into a community
religion
Aspects of life that are extraordinary, supernatural, or holy to which people feel a sense of deep respect, reverence, or awe.
The “sacred”
Aspects of life that are secular or “wordly.”
The “profane”
Symbolic actions that represent religious meanings
rituals
The belief that plants, animals, or other elements of the natural world are endowed with spirits or life forces having an impact on events in society.
animism
Jesus is the Son of God. Through good moral and religious behavior (and/or God's grace), people achieve eternal life with God. 1.7 billion
Christianity
Muhammad received the Qur'an from God. On Judgement Day, believers who have submitted to God's will, as revealed in the Qur'an, will go to eternal Garden of Eden. 1
billion
Islam
Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva are divine. Union with ultimate reality and escape from eternal reincarnation are achieved through yoga, adherence to scipture, and devotion. 719 million
Hinduism
Through meditation and adherence to the 8fold Path, people can free themselves from desire and suffering, escape the cycle of eternal rebirth, and achieve nirvana.
309 million
Buddhism
God's nature and will are revealed in the Torah and His intervention in history. God has established a covenant with the people of Israel, who are called to a life of holiness, justice, mercy, and fidelity to God's law. 18 million
Judaism (Jewish)
The sayings of Confucious stress the role of virtue and order in the relationships among individuals, their families, and society. 5.9 million
Confucianism
________ view religion as necessary for ANY society
Functionalists
_____ ________ view religion EITHER as maintaining the status quo (a Marxist view) OR as an agent of social change (Weberian view).
Conflict theorists
________ _________ pay attention to meanings that people give to - and derive from - religion.
Symbolic interactionists