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29 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Practices of Brotherhood
Four different aspects of fraternity lifestyle make the “brothers” more likely to coerce women into sexual acts
Loyalty, group protection, and secrecy
Alcohol as a weapon
Violence and physical force
Competition and Superiority
Violence and Physical Force
Fraternities have a history of using violence in every day life
Allegations of violent hazing and parties
Fraternities “are the third riskiest property to insure behind toxic waste dumps and amusement parks”
Traditional use of violence and physical force with little repercussion leads to a likely rape

Competition and Superiority
Interfraternity rivalry fosters in-group identification and out-group hostility
Fraternities gain prestige and pride over being the best
Competition is particularly fierce over women
Practices of Brotherhood
Loyalty, Group Protection, and Secrecy
The highest order of the fraternity is to protect the fraternity
“The first rule of fight club is that we do not talk about fight club”
Protection to the organization is created by the protection of each individual member
Secrecy and protection allow for an individual or group of individuals to commit a deviant act and know they have an alibi and support cast
Allows for rape to be committed with little fear of repercussions
Research shows that individuals are aware of right and wrong but the guiding principles of the fraternity overpower these ideas
Practices of Brotherhood
Alcohol as a Weapon
The use of alcohol to gain sex is pervasive in frats
Unique to frats?
Especially desirable to have sex with a “prim and proper” sorority girl
Planned to feed spiked drinks to the “uptight” sorority in order to have sex with them
Telling that one frat member said that gang rapes were wrong but did not think that one on one interaction was wrong with relation to alcohol
Practices of Brotherhood
Violence and Physical Force
Fraternities have a history of using violence in every day life
Allegations of violent hazing and parties
Fraternities “are the third riskiest property to insure behind toxic waste dumps and amusement parks”
Traditional use of violence and physical force with little repercussion leads to a likely rape
Practices of Brotherhood
Competition and Superiority
Interfraternity rivalry fosters in-group identification and out-group hostility
Fraternities gain prestige and pride over being the best
Competition is particularly fierce over women
The last aspect of fraternity life that makes them likely perpetrators of rape is the commodification of women
1. Women as bait
Use of scantily clad women in recruiting videos and pamphlets
Women as Servers
Little Sister Program
Undergrad females are associate with the frat as unofficial members
Pay dues and provide support for all fraternity members
“Benefit from the protection of the brothers”
Sound familiar?
Generates a gender stratification that subordinates women

3. Women as Sexual Prey
“After I became a Greek, I found out I could be with females at will.”
Little sisters become a sexual utility
They do not have the support of a sorority and have no group to protect them from the advances

“We’ll tell the sweetheart, “You’re gorgeous; you can get him.” We’ll tell her to fake a scam and she’ll go hang all over him during a rush party. Kiss him, and he thinks he's done wonder and wants to join. The girls think its great too. Its flattering for them.
The last aspect of fraternity life that makes them likely perpetrators of rape is the commodification of women

Women as bait
Use of scantily clad women in recruiting videos and pamphlets
“We’ll tell the sweetheart, “You’re gorgeous; you can get him.” We’ll tell her to fake a scam and she’ll go hang all over him during a rush party. Kiss him, and he thinks he's done wonder and wants to join. The girls think its great too. Its flattering for them.
The last aspect of fraternity life that makes them likely perpetrators of rape is the commodification of women
Women as Servers
Little Sister Program
Undergrad females are associate with the frat as unofficial members
Pay dues and provide support for all fraternity members
“Benefit from the protection of the brothers”
Sound familiar?
Generates a gender stratification that subordinates women
The last aspect of fraternity life that makes them likely perpetrators of rape is the commodification of women

Women as Sexual Prey
After I became a Greek, I found out I could be with females at will.”
Little sisters become a sexual utility
They do not have the support of a sorority and have no group to protect them from the advances
Commodification of women
Knowing and willing using women for the benefit of the fraternity
Deviance organizations and acts resemble those in normative society
We refer to the phases of a deviants evolutions as a “career”
Entry; upward, lateral mobility; career peaks; aging, burning out
Deviant trajectories, no matter what the actual act of deviance, tend to be similar
Most research done on the beginning and end of deviant careers
Stages that occur within deviance are hard to study because deviants are still active
Limits of this comparison to a legitimate career
Legitimate work has several varieties of structure
Patterns of deviant careers are much more flexible
Three Stages of a deviant career
Entry – how the individual begins being a deviant
Managing deviance – Stage that consists of being a deviant
Exit – process of actually leaving the deviant lifestyle and reentering legitimate life
Three Stages of a deviant career
entry
Can take many shapes, no one way to enter
Some people enter deviance on their own
Most do it with encouragement and assistance from others
Shifting circle of friends
A whole group of peers drift into deviance
Become members of a new cycle of friends that are based on a deviant commonality
Can be precipitous or controlled
Repetitive as well as dissimilarity
Three Stages of a deviant career
managing devise
Must navigate their deviance
Their relationship within deviant communities
Their safety from agents of social control
Must evolve a personal style for deviance
Must balance their deviant careers with normative ones
Three Stages of a deviant career
exit
Factors that both push people out of deviant life and pull them back into the conventional world
Particularly likely with extended and exploitative deviance
Participants may burn out in extended deviance
Returning to legitimate jobs is often extremely difficult
Earning potential is reduced and have strict spending patterns
Used to having no responsibilities
May have trouble making a resume explaining lapse in times between real jobs
Exiting Child Molesting
3 basic stages in the transition out of active offending
1. boundry reemergence phase
Period of mounting regret, self-questioning, and moral recognition of wrongdoings
2. detection phase
Experience a forced exit through confrontation by a nonoffending spouse or parent or victim who exposed the behavior
Sudden and withough forewarning
3. reaction and devastation phase
Occurs after exposure
Experience emotional relief
Despair over possibility of losing everything
Can experience both at once
basic stages in the transition out of active offending
1. boundry reemergence phase
Period of mounting regret, self-questioning, and moral recognition of wrongdoings
transition out of active offending
detection phase
Experience a forced exit through confrontation by a nonoffending spouse or parent or victim who exposed the behavior
Sudden and withough forewarning
transition out of active offending
reaction and devestation phase
Occurs after exposure
Experience emotional relief
Despair over possibility of losing everything
Can experience both at once
Becoming engulfed with fear
Offenders early in the career are not afraid of being caught
Did not view the act as a crime
Thought they were smarter than everybody else
Could stop if they wanted
Victim wont say anything
As behavior progressed they begin to offend more egregiously
Victims become more independent based on needing to get out of deviant relationship
Fear at getting caught becomes real
Regaining temporary control
Done with great pride
Almost always lapse back into offending
Control can stem from internal or external control
Internal – Feelings of remorse and guilt over victimization
External – Stop due to structural reasons, fear of getting caught, life disruption
Reacting to being discovered
2 Stages of being discovered
1. immediate reaction stage
Relief/ intense panic
2. delay reaction phase
Rock bottom
2 Stages of being discovered
1. immediate reaction stage
Relief/ intense panic
2. delay reaction phase
Assumptions of what sex offenders are and stereotypical views of them
Research into sexual offenders and their characteristics started in the 1940s
Main focus is determining what personal characteristics make person into a sex offender
One of the first pieces of research is still one of the few pieces of research that has looked specifically at where the crime is committed
Found that 82% of sex crimes are committed within the offenders neighborhood
Lead to the justice system collecting data on the residence of known sex offenders

Very few common personal commonalties between sex offenders
Stereotypical view
Homicidal, excessive sexual drives, readily identifiable by physical appearance, progress from less serious to more serious offenses
None of these stereotypical views are supported by empirical research
ctual commonalities
Does not mean there are no commonalities
Work jobs with high degree of personal isolation
Avoid close personal relationships
Create high degrees of conflict between others in life
Sex offender notification laws in Arizona
Sex offender policy and notification laws in Arizona
If convicted of a sex based crime you are required to register as an offender
Arizona includes offenses such as adultery as registerable offenses

Process of registration and notification in Arizona
Sex offender released from jail/prison they are immediately entered into a statewide database
Given a “risk assessment” at this time
Risk level 1, 2, 3
Risk level 1 must register but is at the discretion of the DOJ in terms of community notification
Risk level 2 and 3 demand a notification of those in the immediate are of residence
Community Notification
“…Surrounding neighborhood, area schools, appropriate community groups and prospective employers” must all be notified
“Notification shall include a flyer with a photograph and exact address of the offender as well as a summary of the offender’s status and criminal background. A press release and a level two or three flyer shall be given to the local electronic and print media to enable information to be placed in a local publication.”

Not academically investigated as of yet
Mandatory notification of surrounding areas and institutions effectively limits the area a sex offender can live and will cause “deviant enclaves” to form in areas where stigma is not felt
Why thy number of sex offenders were normalized – “…per 1,000 people”
Transformed raw count of sex offenders in zip code to number of offenders per 1,000 inhabitants of the area

Different trends are seen when number of offenders are normalized

Sex offenders are disproportionately settling in rural areas

Could be a consequence of the realities of the mandatory notification process in Arizona
What the empirical data demonstrates with relation to where sex offenders are actually living
South and central Phoenix again demonstrate levels of sex offenders that are well above the norm

Scottsdale and Paradise Valley are well below the mean

Zip code 85007 operating as a deviant enclave?
Are sex offenders congregating in areas of high school concentration
Does it appear as though sex offenders are disproportionately settling in areas with high concentrations of schools

No clear trend or correlation