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45 Cards in this Set

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Definition of deviance
a violation of social norms
Norms
codes of conduct that guieds peoples actions; sets the precedent of social acceptability
folkways
Norms based on tradition, etiquette, or custom
Violations of folkways do not draw strong condemnation from others in society but do cast an unfavorable light on the deviant
Examples – Standards of dress, physical closeness
mores
Norms based on broad societal morals
Violations generate more serious condemnations than folkway infractions; “wicked”
Seen as being the fabric that holds society together
Examples – Drug use, Prostitution, Interracial relationships
laws
Codified norms
Violations constitute legal and physical punishment
Usually the strongest mores turn into laws
Examples – Murder, Gambling(?)
abc's of deviance
Attitudes – Alternative sets of belief systems
Can fall into religious or political category
Cults/Extremists
Deviant belief systems caused by mental illness
“…people with chemical, emotional, or psychological problems may be considered deviant.”
Really? In this Category

Behavioral – Public actions are abnormal
May be intentional or inadvertent
Examples - Violating dress norms, abnormal sexual practices, committing murder, (Mental Illness?)

Conditional – the structural constraints of the individual forces a deviant persona
Ascribed Status – Being born into a deviant status
Examples – Race, Congenital Handicap, (Mental Illness?)
Achieved Status – Attaining a deviant status by creating deviant conditions of life
Examples – Body Modification, Anorexia/Obesity(?), (Mental Illness?)
ascribed
Being born into a deviant status
Examples – Race, Congenital Handicap, (Mental Illness?)
acheived
Attaining a deviant status by creating deviant conditions of life
Examples – Body Modification, Anorexia/Obesity(?), (Mental Illness?)
problems with the definition of deviance- levels of commuity and changing definition community
Definitions of deviance all rely upon the community in which the deviant act/person occurs

Different levels of deviance definition
Micro – Family, Extended Family, Block, Neighborhood, Town
Macro – State, Nation, International, Continent, Universe

The definition of what is deviant may or may not change at each level of community
community- role in defining deviance
a group of people who share contact, a system of beliefs, and way of life
Propinquity important?
Communities serve to socialize and to provide a basis on which to base action
It sets and maintains boundaries for the individual
Communities determine exactly what things are considered taboo
community- how we learn our boundaries from community
How are these boundaries passed on from creation to the members of a community?
Socialization – Parents teach children what to do and when to do things; Obedience
Public Spectacle – Interactions between the state polity and individuals at odds are most highly publicized
Takes the form of trials and/or wars
Local news consists of publicizing boundary pushing acts and contrasting with boundary idealizing stories
community- 2 ways boundaries are creatged
Only through the constant testing of what is allowed do we understand what the boundaries of our community are

We know what is not allowed and what is left is what is allowed; essentially the negative space of deviance is what is proper
community- the necessity of deviance
We consistently use deviance to define and create communities and community boundaries, therefore deviance must be an unconditional and permanent aspect of all communities
Police forces, courts, lawyers, broadcasting, sociologists, all rely upon deviance for monetary gain
What happens if we rid our society of deviance? Do we become stagnant? If not to stop deviance what is the function of having a criminal justice system or fighting wars?
community- when does a community care about rehabilitation
We place little resource into the rehabilitation of the deviants unless it is in the best interest of the community
Prisons have long been known to be places that only serve to create bigger and better crooks (Mike Tyson)
Death penalties rehabilitative purpose?
Once a Deviant always a deviant?
positive vs. negative deviance
Exceeding normative expectations in a way that will not harm the community as a whole
Normative – positive deviance occurs when people over-conform to expectations
Reactivist – positive deviance occurs when people can perfrom some type of activity on a level higher than others in a community



Actions that push the boundaries of a community and illicit negative reactions

Anything that can be labeled as deviant by the ABCs of Deviance or by crossing a norm; must result in negative reactions

What we normally think of when we hear the term deviant
typology of deviance and a persons place in it
Normative Expectations
Social Reaction Under or Nonconformity Overconformity

Negative Evaluations
Negative Deviance
Rate-busting

Positive Evaluations
Deviance Admiration
Positive Deviance
negative deviance
behaviors or conditions that are nonconforming and elicit negative reactions
rate- busting deviance
behaviors or conditions that overconform to expectations and are negatively reacted to
deviance admiration
behaviors or conditions are nonconforming yet elicit positive reactions
positive deviance
Conditions that overconform yet elicit positive reactions
structural
Peoples actions are guided by the shape of their community; incapable of resisting
interactionist
Peoples actions are guided by how they interpret and react to their communities norms based on their “interactions” with those in their peer group and socializing agents
symbolic interaction
Main Tenet: Meanings are negotiated between social actors by the interpretation and reification of cultural symbols
Symb Inter- symbols
Representation of a cultural fact
Examples: Language, Personifications, Batman’s Chest Protector, Propaganda
symb inter- stigma
erving groffman 1922-1982

Symbols of deviance are emanated by an individual which others interpret and derive meaning from
Labeling Theory- secret deviance
Secret Deviance – Engaging in “traditionally” deviant acts but not being labeled as such
symb inter- looking glass self
Charles Cooley 1864-1929

We see ourselves through the eyes of other people and act and alter our actions accordingly
Example – Hot Topic
labeling thoery- over time
As there are variations in the level of deviance assigned to an act over time, by who is committing the act, and only in certain situations it is precluded from being a “naturally” deviant act
Over time – Drives
Who – Different punishments for different offenders
Certain Situations – the same act is considered deviant for some but not others depending upon the situation in which the act was committed
labeling theory- master status
Once you are labeled as a deviant it will become your master status
Individual will be unable to escape its reach
If you have this master status people will assume that you have other deviant traits
As labels rely upon symbols of deviance it is possible to labeled as deviant through purely biological/chance means
Labeling theory- how to be labeled deviant
howard becker

We ALL are deviant; not one person can say that they made it through being a child without some type of deviance
Then why aren't we all labeled as deviant?

Acts themselves are not inherently deviant; they only become so when they are labeled as such by peer groups and superseding groups
Being deviant does not rely upon committing some immoral act
You need only to be labeled deviant to be deviant
control theory- bond
travis hirshci

Stake in community; Consists of 4 different parts
control theory realms- attachment
The size and magnitude of an individuals social network
The larger and more intense your social network, the less likely the individual will be to commit some deviant act
Psychology – a symptom of being a psychopath is lack of attachment to others
Control Theory – a person who lacks attachment to others is a psychopath
control theory realms- committment
“Rational” portion of the theory
The degree to which a person wishes society to continue in a straight path; to succeed in that community
People determine if their action will harm their chance in conventional society or the stability of that community
control theory realms- involvement
The degree to which you are immersed in a community
If you are preoccupied with non-deviant tasks there is no time for deviant ones
Most important during early childhood and school
Soccer Mom Syndrome
control theory realms- beleif
The degree to which the validity of a communities norms are held
The less you believe in a society the less likely you are to wish to follow its rules
differential association theory- how we learn deviance
Deviance is learned from association and interaction with other delinquents
People are bombarded with deviance
Media representations
Reading the newspaper
Fiction
But can only be deviant after they learn how

People we communicate with on a daily basis
Main agents of learning are friends and family
differential associon- what do we learn
Techniques of crime
The physical mechanisms of committing a crime
Can be extremely complicated or easy
Reason for committing such acts
C:
different assoc- definign legal codes as unfavorable
How do people derive motives and rationalizations for committing crimes
Interpretation of the legal code as unfavorable
A person surrounded by a majority of people who define the legal code as unfavorable will come to agree and commit crimes
types of feminism- liberal feminism
Works to change the system incrementally
Accept the basic framework of a community but wishes to enact policy that will equalize
types of feminism- socialist feminism
Evolved from Karl Marx
Patriarchy concentrates wealth in the hands of a few men
Wants to change basic structure of community as women are now relegated to “domestic slavery”
Formulate a state economy that equalizes all
types of feminism- radical feminism
Patriarchy is so firmly entrenched that not even a socialist overthrowing of the system would work
Must eliminate gender itself
Divorce the female body from child bearing
Leave behind the entire realm of family and liberate women and children
Strictly egalitarian(?)
basic feminist ideas
Working to increase equality
Usually works in the political arena
Enacting policy to enforce the leveling of society
basic feminist ideas
Expanding Human Choice
Feminists say the world is bifurcated
C:
C:
The purpose of equality is to reintegrate these two realms
basic feminist idea
Ending Sexual Violence
Patriarchal system promotes gender relationships that encourage violence against in the form of rape, domestic abuse, sexual harassment, and pornography
basic feminist idea
Eliminating Gender Stratification
Oppose laws and cultural norms that limit the education, income, and job opportunities of women
Deviance is built into this paradigm; their existence will continue to be deviant either until