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67 Cards in this Set

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The "Looking glass self" is associated with:
a. Cooley
b. Freud
c. Horney
d. Kendall
e. Adolphson
a. Cooley
The Looking-Glass Self is a term created by *******, that means that we see ourselves as others see us. The concept says that in order to develop and shape behavior, interactions with others must exist.
The concept describing normlessness or lack of attachment to others is called:
a. Anomie
b. Immorality
c. Fidelity decline
d. Suicidal precursors
e. Xenophobia
a. Anomie
If we say that good grades are a strong reason why NIU students get good jobs when applying to corporations, the INDEPENDENT VARIABLE is:
a. Good grades
b. NIU students
c. Good jobs
d. Corporate hiring
e. could e either c. or d.
a. Good grades
Independent Variable: a variable that is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable.

Dependent variable: A variable that is assumed to depend on or be caused by one or more other (independent) variables.
Emile Durkheim’s designation for a condition in which social control becomes ineffective as a result of the loss of shared values and of a sense of purpose in society.
conflict perspectives
The sociological approach that views groups in society as engaged in a continuous power struggle for control of scarce resources.
functionalist perspectives
the sociological approach that views society as a stable, orderly system.
the process by which societies are transformed from dependence on agriculture and handmade products to an emphasis on manufacturing and related industries.
latent functions
unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants.
macrolevel analysis
an approach that examines whole societies, large-scale social structures, and social systems.
manifest functions
functions that are intended and/or overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit.
a term describing Auguste Comte’s belief that the world can best be understood through scientific inquiry.
postmodern perspectives
the sociological approach that attempts to explain social life in modern societies that are characterized by post industrialization, consumerism, and global communications.
social Darwinism
Herbert Spencer’s belief that those species of animals, including human beings, best adapted to their environment survive and prosper, whereas those poorly adapted die out.
a large social grouping that shares the same geographical territory and is subject to the same political authority and dominant cultural expectations.
sociological imagination
C. Wright Mills’s term for the ability to see the relationship between individual experiences and the larger society.
the systematic study of human society and social interaction.
dependent variable
a variable that is assumed to depend on or be caused by one or more other (independent) variables.
Hawthorne effect
a phenomenon in which changes in a subject’s behavior are caused by the researcher’s presence or by the subject’s awareness of being studied.
independent variable
a variable that is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable.
in sociological research, the extent to which a study or research instrument accurately measures what it is supposed to measure.
a group that strongly rejects dominant societal values and norms and seeks alternative lifestyles.
cultural imperialism
the extensive infusion of one nation’s culture into other nations.
cultural relativism
the belief that the behaviors and customs of any culture must be viewed and analyzed by the culture’s own standards.
the knowledge, language, values, customs, and material objects that are passed from person to person and from one generation to the next in a human group or society.
culture shock
the disorientation that people feel when they encounter cultures radically different from their own and believe they cannot depend on their own taken-for-granted assumptions about life.
the transmission of cultural items or social practices from one group or society to another.
the assumption that one’s own culture and way of life are superior to all others.
a set of symbols that expresses ideas and enables people to think and communicate with one another.
material culture
a component of culture that consists of the physical or tangible creations (such as clothing, shelter, and art) that members of a society make, use, and share.
established rules of behavior or standards of conduct.
popular culture
the component of culture that consists of activities, products, and services that are assumed to appeal primarily to members of the middle and working classes.
rewards for appropriate behavior or penalties for inappropriate behavior.
Sapir–Whorf hypothesis
the proposition that language shapes the view of reality of its speakers.
agents of socialization
the persons, groups, or institutions that teach us what we need to know in order to participate in society.
anticipatory socialization
the process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles.
gender socialization
the aspect of socialization that contains specific messages and practices concerning the nature of being female or male in a specific group or society.
looking-glass self
Charles Horton Cooley’s term for the way in which a person’s sense of self is derived from the perceptions of others.
the totality of our beliefs and feelings about ourselves.
the lifelong process of social interaction through which individuals acquire a self-identity and the physical, mental, and social skills needed for survival in society.
achieved status
a social position that a person assumes voluntarily as a result of personal choice, merit, or direct effort.
ascribed status
a social position conferred at birth or received involuntarily later in life based on attributes over which the individual has little or no control, such as race/ethnicity, age, and gender.
master status
the most important status that a person occupies.
a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status.
role conflict
a situation in which incompatible role demands are placed on a person by two or more statuses held at the same time.
role expectation
a group’s or society’s definition of the way that a specific role ought to be played.
role strain
a condition that occurs when incompatible demands are built into a single status that a person occupies.
social group
a group that consists of two or more people who interact frequently and share a common identity and a feeling of interdependence.
social institution
a set of organized beliefs and rules that establishes how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs.
a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties.
the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group.
ideal type
an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as bureaucracy).
conventional (street) crime
all violent crime, certain property crimes, and certain morals crimes.
any behavior, belief, or condition that violates cultural norms.
labeling theory
the proposition that deviants are those people who have been successfully labeled as such by others.
occupational (white-collar) crime
illegal activities committed by people in the course of their employment or financial affairs.
primary deviance
the initial act of rule-breaking.
secondary deviance
the process that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant accepts that new identity and continues the deviant behavior.
strain theory
the proposition that people feel strain when they are exposed to cultural goals that they are unable to obtain because they do not have access to culturally approved means of achieving those goals.
tertiary deviance
deviance that occurs when a person who has been labeled a deviant seeks to normalize the behavior by relabeling it as nondeviant.
anticipatory socialization
the process by which knowledge and skills are learned for future roles.
According to our text, the process in biological organisms that is self-correcting isk nown as:
a. System regeneration
b. Homeostasis
c. Adaptation
d. Goal attainment
e. All of the above to some extent
b. Homeostasis
A small group characterized by intimate, face to face association and cooperation is a:
a. Peer group
b. Latent group
c. Primary group
d. Secondary group
e. Manifest group
c. Primary group
a group to which a person belongs and with which the person feels a sense of identity.
reference group
a group that strongly influences a person’s behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member.
Manifest function
Indeded and/or overtly recognized by the participants in a social unit.
Latent function
are unintended functions that are hidden and remain unacknowledged by participants.
What does each technique of Matza's theory of neutralization mean?
* denial of responsibility
* denial of injury
* denial of victim
* condemnation of the condemners
* appeal to higher loyalties
* denial of responsibility (I couldn't help myself)
* denial of injury (nobody got hurt)
* denial of victim (they had it coming)
* condemnation of the condemners (what right do they have to criticise me?)
* appeal to higher loyalties (I did it for someone else).