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235 Cards in this Set

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Who was Julius Caesar?
A general and a dictator of Rome, and a leader of Roman Legions during 1st c. CE
Who was the famous general, and dictator of Rome, and leader of Roman Legions during 1st c. CE?
Julius Ceasar.
What did Julius Caesar accomplish in 52 BCE? Why is this significant?
He conquered Gaul and Asia Minor which are two very profitable Roman provinces.
Who conquered Gaul and Asia Minor in 52 BCE?
Julius Ceasar.
What was Julius Ceasar's victorious message?
"Veni, Vedi, Vici"
"I came, I saw, I conquered"
Who had the victorious message:

"Veni, Vedi, Vici"
"I came, I saw, I conquered"
Julius Ceasar.
What did Julius Ceasar accomplish in 45 BCE?
He defeated Pompey in the first Roman Civil War.
Who defeated Pompey in the first Roman Civil War?
Julius Ceasar.
When did Julius Ceasar become the military dictator of Rome?
46 BCE (to 44 BCE)
When was Ceasar assinated and by whom?
He was assasinated on March 15th 44 BCE by the Senate (Brutus, Cassius, Cicero)
Who was the first emperor of Rome?
Augustus.
Why was Augustus important?
He was Rome's first emporer.
Augustus was the adopted son of who?
Julius Ceasar.
Julius Ceasar's adopted son was who?
Augustus.
What did Augustus accomplish in 42 BCE?
He defeated Brutus and Cassius in the Battle of Philippi.
When where Brutus and Cassius defeated in the battle of Philippi and by who?
42 BCE by Augustus.
What did Augustus accomplish in 31 BCE?
He defeated Antony and Cleopatra in the (naval) Battle of Actium.
When were Antony and Cleopatra defeated in the Battle of Actium and by who?
31 BCE by Augustus.
Why did the Battle of Actium start?
Antony wanted to be emporer so he teamed up with Cleopatra.
What did Antony and Cleopatra do after the Battle of Actium?
They commited suicide.
Who left a legacy of art, architecture, literature, politics, and philosophy during Europe's Early Middle Ages.
The Greeks, Romans, Franks, Goths, Anglo-Saxons, Celts, and Vikings
What was land around the Mediterranean ideal for and why?
Population growth

Fertile Soil+Adequate Rainfall+Sunshine= Long Growing Season
The Mediterranean was also ideal for...
-
-
-
-Connection Societies
-trade
-spread of ideas
What was Greek culture very important to?
Early Mediterranean Civilizations
Where did Alexander the Great spread Greek Civ. and philosophy?
North Africa, Middle East, India
Who spread Greek Civ and philosophy to North Africa, Middle East, India?
Alexander The Great
When did Rome conquer Greece?
150 BCE
What happened during 150 BCE?
Greece was conquered by Rome
When Rome conquered Greece what happened?
-
-
-
-Rome borrowed Greek ideas and skills
-Thinkers and builders from Middle East
-Trade Networks established into Middle East
What did Rome do after the conquered land?
They gathered and borrowed everything they admired, thus becoming a very sophisticated+advanced civilization.
Who were the Roman Legions?
Very Powerful military force controlling empire.
What language did the Romans speak?
Latin
Romans copied Greek _____
architecture
The Romans had a code of law. Why is this significant?
We still use it today in Canada.
What did the Roman Code of Laws say?
It protected citizens and says everyone has the right to a fair trial.
In terms of Literature, the Romans took from what to civilizations?
Greece+Egypt
When did the Shang dynasty start?
1650 BCE
Chinese civilization started with...
A small kingdom formed in Northern China.
What was the first capital of China?
Anyang
What was Anyang?
The first Capital of China.
What was Chinese civilization based on?
The Huang He River Valley.
Who lived in the Chinese kingdom? Who moved there?
Upper Class. Artisans
Where did the Chinese Upper Class live?
Stone houses
Who ruled each region of Early China?
Nobles. One for each region
What kind of a position was the noble for a region of China?
Hereditary
The majority of the population in china where________.
Millet farmers.
Where did the Chinese millet farmers live?
The Huang He River Valley.
What were the house that the Chinese Millet Farmers lived in like?
Pit houses with thatch rooves.
How did peasants live?
They worked on their own fields and helped with public projects.
Who worked on their own fields and helped with public projects?(China)
Peasants
During which dynasty was Chinese writing developed?
The Shang
What artistic developments did the Shang Dynasty make?
-
-
-
-
(4)
-developed earliest Chinese writing
-developed pottery in same style today
-bronze casting=valuable artifacts produced
-silk making developed
What was the most valuable textile around the world during the Shang dynasty?
Silk
What were the burial practices during the Shang Dynasty?
-Rulers were buried in deep pits with many valuable artifacts+servants
-tombs provide clues to beliefs and values
What were the three Social orginizations of the Shang Dynasty in China?
Upper Class:
Artisans
Peasants
Describe the three social levels of the Shang Dynasty.
Upper Class: ruled as lords, and formed aristocracy in Anyang

Artisans: made money making things for upper class

Peasants: farmed and contributed to public projects
Describe China's military durin the Shang Dynasty...
-
-
-Bronze Weapons
-frequently defended against nomadic attacks from the North
When where The Shang defeated and by whom?
They were defeated in 1027 BCE by the Zhou Kingdom from the Wei River.
How long did the Shang dynasty last? Why was it significant
-600 years
-1st chinese Dynasty/civilization
Describe the religious beliefs of the Shang.
-
-
-
-
-
(5)
-polytheistic
-Di=Lord on High-good harvest, battle, and weather
-dead relatives were still connected to family
-living give offerings in exchange for ancestor's protection
-Shang Kings=priests who can communicate with royal ancestors who have closer connection to Di
When did the Zhou dynasty begin?
1027 BCE
When did the Zhou dynasty end?
256 BCE
What did the Zhou rulers say about the Shang rulers?
They lost their mandate to heaven.
Describe the Mandate of Heaven.
The idea that the emporer, the son of heaven, has the support of the gods as long as he rules correctly
During the Zhou, kingdoms were divided into _______.
Territories, each ruled by a lord.
Describe the 3 socials levels of the Zhou.
King-lord-peasant
What were the lord's responsibilities during the Zhou?
To manage land and peasants.
Was the Shang+Zhou social systems the same or different?
The same.
During the Zhou, what responsibilities did peasants owe lords?
Food, labour, military service.
During the Zhou, what responsibilities did lords owe to kings?
Loyalty and tribute
Where did Zhou expand China to during their reign?
As far east and south as the Chiang Jiang river
What were the two classes society was divided into during the Zhou?
Upper and lower
During the Zhou, what were the upper and lower classes made up from?
Upper = Kings+Lords

Lower = Peasants, Artisans, Merchants
What did Zhou kings also act as?
Priests?
What responsibilities did Zhou priests have?
Ancestor Worship, ceremonies for agriculture.
When Zhou conquered the Shang, they didn't know how to ______ or _______.
Write or make bronze.
What did the Zhou do with Shang culture?
Adopt and develop it.
Under the rule of the Zhou, what were launched?
Large Scale public projects
What large project/building did the Zhou undertake?
A wall in the North to defend against Nomadic raids from the steppes
What continued but changed a bit during the Zhou?
Bronze making
What mineral did Zhou introduce?
Iron
What did the Zhou use iron for?
weapons, agricultural tools
What improved considerably during the Zhou?
Writing?
WHat did Zhou also introduce the use of?
Money
What had taken on its modern character by the end of the Zhou?
Chinese writing
What were first made during the Zhou?
The first Chinese books
When did the Zhou lose control?
When lords rebelled against king
When did the king flee during the Zhou?
770 BCE
What did the king do when he fled in 770 BCE (Zhou)
Made Louyang the new capital of China.
What did the Zhou kings lose?
-
-
Political and military control
What did the Zhou Kings still keep during the collapse of the Zhou?
Their role as priests
When were the warring states period?
481-256 BCE
What happened during the warring states period?
Lords fought with each other over territory.
What were the Successes of the Zhou dynasty?
mandat eof heaven, technilogical developments
What were the Failures of the Zhou dynasty?
The lords became too strong
When was the Qin dynasty?
256 - 202 BCE
Who was the leader of the Qin dynasty?
Shi Huangdi or "First Emporer"
How did Shi Huangdi unite and create his empire?
Military conquest, united China after 200 years of civil war.
Describe the Government Orginization of the Qin Dynasty
-
-
-
-
-Nobles live in capital so behaviour is monitered.
-peasants get land that belonged to nobles, but have to give labour + taxes
-36 districts
-Each district ruled by and appointed official
Describe the Philosophy + Social Orginization of the Qin dynasty
-
-
-
-
-
-
-Code of laws developed
-Legalist
-Eliminated Feudal System
-Strict laws so no one could disobey
-Government more important the people
-Killed representatives of other philosophies (mostly daoist)
Describe the Technological Developments of the Zhou
-
-
-
-great wall of china
-Terra cotta warriors
-standardized money, measuring system, writing
How long is the Great Wall?
2,200kms long
Describe Shi Huangdi's Tomb
-
-
-
-6,000 terra cotta warriors
-floor = map of China
-Ceiling = stars made of jewels
What were the successes of the Qin dynasty?
-
-
-Legalist society allowed for discipline and fast development
-Took power away from nobles
What were the failures of the Qin dynasty?
-
-
-
-
-Too many enemies
-forced labour
-prosecution
-taxes
When was the Han Dynasty?
206 BCE - 220 CE
Who was the first Han emporer?
Gaozu
What was China's capital city during the Han dynasty?
Chang'an
Describe the Government Orginization + Philosophy of the Han dynasty
-
-
-
-
-
-
-Did not restore Feudal system
-Kept centralized government system of the Qin
-Confucism with some legalist
-Appointed officials through birth not merit
-Officials had to pass exam
-Officials had to show appreciation for art, literature, and law
Describe the expansion of China during the Han dynasty.
-
-
-
-Expanded in South + North
-Grew to include Manchuria + Korea
-Expanded for into central Asia through conquest + alliances
Describe family life during the Han dynasty
-
-
-
-
-Key role in society
-Several Generations would live together as family unit
-Elder male had most power
-Elders were respected without question and made big family decisions like marriage.
Describe The Economic Development through trade + technology during the Han dynasty
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-Contact with India, Middle East, Africa, Europe
-Silk Road grew China's economy
-More Artisans + Merchants
-More roads + Canals
-Invented paper, breast-strap harness, the stern post rudder, and the magnetic compass
-Chang'an = biggest city due to wealth from trade
Describe the Silk Road
-A road connecting China with Europe in which silk was traded. Very dangerous due to weather, robbers
What were the main inventions of the Han dynasty?
-Invented paper, breast-strap harness, the stern post rudder, and the magnetic compass
What were the successes of the Han dynasty?

-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-More liked by people
-Less strict than Confucist but not slack
-Increase wealth + economy through trade
-Strong military
-centralized gov
-Nobles appointed through merit
What were the failures of the Han dynasty?
-
-
-
-
-Later Emperors were less capable
-Rebellions
-Natural Disasters
-Factions and Imperial court undermined work of the gov.
When was the period of Chaos? (after Han)
220 CE - 589 CE
When was the Sui Dynasty?
589 - 618 CE
Who was the leader of the Sui dynasty?
Wendi
What were Wendi's roles.
-emperor
-government official
Describe The Goverment Orginization and Philosophy of the Sui dynasty
-
-
-
-
-
-Ruled with great cruelty, brought back rules
-Ambitious
-Re-unite empire
-Update Exam system
Describe the Economic Development Through Public Works during the Sui dynasty.
-
-
-
-
-
-Repaired parts of the Great Wall
-created Grand Canal
-Chang'an = largest city in the world, western cities shrank
- HUGe death toll on population
Why was the Grand Canal significant?
-
-
-Connects the Haung He and the Chang Jiang rivers.
-creates fertile land
Describe the Successes of the Sui Dynasty.
-
-
-
-
-
-Grand Canal
-Exams re-introduced
-Harsh work forced people to work
-Re-united empire
Describe the failures of the Sui dynasty
-
-
-
-Tried to do too much too soon
-People rebelled
-Wendi was cruel
When was the Tang dynasty?
618-907 CE
Name 4 significant rulers of the Tang dynasty.
Empress Wu
Xuanzong
Gaozong (or Li Huan)
Taizong
Taizong was one of the most ____________ emperors.
Dynamic
Which old empire did the Tang revive and prosper off of?
Han
Where did the Tang empire expand China to?
-Afghanistan
Which countries did the Tang force to become tributary states?
-
-
-
Tibet, Korea, Vietnam
Describe the Examination system during the Tang dynasty.
-
-
-
-
-
-Improved examination systems + education
-Built schools and standardized courses - first government to provide schools
-Expensive to prepare child for exam, sacrifice could pay off
-Four Books, Five Classes
-Testing was regular, cheating was common
The Tang government was the first government to provide what?
Schools
Describe the City Life + Class systems of the Tang dynasty.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-Cosmopolitan
-Land given to ordinary people
-People visited from all over
-108 wards in Chang'an
-Copied + bought from foreigners
-Amount of merchants increased
-Merchants werent respected because of Confucianism
-More Woman's rights - Empress Wu
Describe Art and literature during the Tang dynasty.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-Art Flourished
-Potters, painters, jade artists, etc
-Devote to Buddhist + Daoist
-Chinese Poets
-By then there were millions of works of literature due to past dynasties
-Art depicted everyday life no gods/leaders
Describe the scientific developments of the Tang dynasty.
-
-
-
-
-Gunpowder (850 CE)
-Small Pox Vaccine
-Bock Printing
-Stools + Chairs
Describe the Successes of the Tang dynasty
-
-
-
-Cosmopolitan
-Learned and bought from merchants
-Aided by work of past dynasties
Describe the failures of the Tang dynasty.
-
-One emporer fell into dream/private world and others fought for power. Military commander took over Chang'an and forced out Xuanzong. Xuanzong gave throne to son after depression. Son continued fighting and won after 8 years
When did the Tang Dynasty end?
907 CE
India is one of the _______ civilizations.
oldest
When was India started/originated?
2500 BCE
How have invading groups contributed to India?
-each invading group has added elements to India's culture, yet som Hindu traditions never change.
Which two huge religions originated in India?
-Buddhism
-Hinduism
How many official languages are in India?
Over 20
What is the population of India
(# and %)
1.1 billion
17 % of world's
What is Canada's percentage of world's population?
0.5%
Which is the largest movie industry in the world?
Bollywood
What can be seen from space?
Calcutta Slum Fires
What is still practiced in India?
Infanticide
What is infanticide?
Killing of female babies
What kind of marriages are still common in India?
Arranged
-learn to love your spouse
India is the world's largest _______
Democracy
What system exists in India
The caste system
What is the caste system?
-strict class-based orginization for society
What are the Modern Countries in the Indian subcontinent?
(7 including India)
-India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka.
Which mountains separate India from the rest of Asia? (2)
Himalayas and Hindu Kush mountains.
What is in the middle of India (geography) (2)
The Deccan Plateau and the Vindhya mountains
Describe the Deccan Plateau
High and Dry
Where are the Vindhya mountains and what do they do?
Across the middl of India. Divide the Subcontinent into 2 halves
India is a ______
Penninsula
Which three bodies of water surround India?
Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal, Indian Ocean
There are few good ________ but also few good _______ in India
-natural Harbours, invaders by sea
Where do invaders enter India?
Mountain passes in the west
The Indian subcontinent has never ____________________
been controlled by one empire
How tall in the India subcontinent?
3000km
Describe India's summer monsoon.(May to october)
-
-
-Rising Warm Air
-Lots of rain in Bombay
Describe India's winter monsoon.(November to April)
-
-
-Falling cold air
-More rain in Madras (though not too much)
Describe Indias Earlist Indian History
-
-
-Indus Civilization --2500 BCE to 1500 BCE
-Earliest cities built on Indus river valley -- Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro
When were the ruins of Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro found?
1921
During Indias Earlist Indian History, What was housing like?
-Cities built of brick
-housed large populations
-had fertile soil + water for trade + irrigation, streets, private homes, public baths, shops
What did Early Indian civilization grow?
Cotton
Who were the Aryans and what were they like?
Warlike people from west-central Asia. Fair skinned, tall. Herders and originally nomadic. Use chariots and archers.
When did the Aryans attack and what did it lead to?
1500 BCE - decline of Indus civilization
How did the Indus people react to the Aryan's invasion?
They fought then retreated south.
What happened after the Indus people fled south?
The became known as dravidians, and established various kingdoms in the south. Those kingdoms lasted for 1800 years.
What happened to the Dravidians who stayed in the north?
They were assimilated by the Aryans
Describe the Aryan's religion.
-
-
-
-polytheistic
-worshiped gods like Agni - god of fire
-made offerings
What system did the Aryans develop?
The caste system
What were the four original castes?
Priest (Brahma), Warrior (Kshatriya), Commoner (Vaishya), Slave/Non-Aryan (Sudra)
Where did the Aryans record their original traditions?
The Vedas
Aryan language = __________
Indo-European Language
What language did the Aryan's speak?
Sanskrit
What language did Sanskrit develop into?
Punjabi, Hindi
Aryans made many __________
Rival Kingdoms
What protected the south from invaders?
Geoography
What did Alexander the Great Capture?
What is now Pakistan + part of Indus river valley
When did Alexander capture part of India?
330 BCE
Who was the first person to capture North-West India?
Alexander the Great
When did Alexander die after he invaded India?
7 years later
When and who rose to power and overthrew the ruler of Magadha?
Chandragupta Maurya
What is Magadha ?
northern Hindu Kingdom
Where did Chandragupte attack and subdue?
All of Northern India +started Maurya Dynasty
What was the capital city of the Maurya dynasty?
Pataliputra
Who was Chandragupta's grandson?
Ashoka - greatest Mauryan ruler
when did Ashoka live?
273-232 BCE
What did Ashoka nearly do.
Unite all of India
What made Ashoka convert to buddhism?
Military campaign against Kalinga
Ashoka was a ____ 1st and a _____ 2nd
Warrior

Philosopher
What did Ashoka improve?
-villages + towns, planted wells + trees
Ashoka gave free _________
Medical Aid
During Ashoka's rule, people were ___________
Kind to Each other
Ashoka supported the spread of ____________
Buddhism
Ashoka made _________ which are liek Buddhist laws
Ashoka's pillars
Ashoka becam a _______
monk
When did Ashoka die and what happened as a result?
185 BCE adn empire collapsed.
When was the Gupta Empire?
320 - 550 CE
Who was the Gupta empire formed by?
Chandragupta II
Why did Chandragupta II for the Gupta empire?
he wanted to re-create the Mauryan empire
Where did Chandragupta II rule?
Northern India
Describe the Gupta Empire's economy
-
-
-
-
-Economy based on agriculture village life
-takes = 12 % of value of you cattle and water (if land was irrigated)
-temples funded by offerings and fees
-cotton trade, spices -- Arabia + China
What was the oldest and most dominant religion of India?
Hinduism
Where did Hinduism come from and who influenced it?
No know founder, came with Aryans, influenced by Dravidians
What is Dharma?
Duty or Way of life
What were the holy books of Hinduism
The Vedas and Upanishads
Brahma =
Vishnu =
Shiva =
Ganesha =
creator
preserver
destroyer
remoemove obstacles + learning
What is Atman
the soul
In Hinduism you try to achieve ______ which is freedom of the soul
Moksha
What is someone who has acheived their Moksha called?
Yogi
Name two Hindu holidays
Divali - festivals of lights
Holi - partying + mischief
What are the 5 caste System principals
Ritual Pollution - someone of a lower caste can't touch you or your stuff
Commensality = Eat with your own caste
Marriage = Only marry within your caste
Hereditary Occupation = do same job as your parents
Economic Links = each caste's designated job fills a role in society
When did Jainism begin? WHERE?
6th c. BCE. NorthEastern India
jainism has been handed down through __ successive saints
24
jains believe soul can be ____________________
reborn in body of another living thing
Jains worship ______ but don't have ________
Gods, castes
A Jain's actions ultimatley lead to ______
Nirvana of "Nothingness"
When was Buddhism founded?
2500 Years ago (500 BCE) in India
WHat are The 4 Noble Truths of Buddhism.
1) There is suffering. Nothing is permanent. Everything changes, include the self. The self is an illusion.
2)Suffering is caused by desire
3)Suffering can be eliminated when desire + selfishness are
4)The Eightfold Path -Right understanding, speech, determination, conduct, living, effort, meditation, peace of mind, can eliminate desire + selfishness
When did Sikhism begin?
16th c. CE
Who founded Sikhism
Guru Nanak
Sikhs opposed the _________
caste system
Sikhs are __________
monotheistic
Sikhs were persecuted by _________
Mughals
Sikhs wear ______,______,_______
turban, bracelets, swords
Sikhs conquered most of the ______ by 18th c. CE
Punjab
Who organized the Sikhs into effective fighting force?
Govind Singh