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150 Cards in this Set

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What is totalitarianism?
What are some traits?
Give an example
• “total” dictatorship
• Arose in interwar years (new technologies provide dictators with greater ‘total’ control over population)
• Traits
o One leader/ideology/no oppose allowed
o Secret police used to terrorize people
o Censorship/propaganda used to control population
o Citizens denied human/civil rights
• E.g. Fascist Italy & Germany
What happened with Italy after World War I?
Who was Mussolini? What did he do?
• New post-WWI democratic government faced public dissatisfaction
o Felt “cheated” at Versailles
o Economic chaos
o Blamed government
• Mussolini forms the “Fascisti” Party
o Threatens to March on Rome
• Once in power, attempts “imperial conquests” (attacks Ethiopia in 1935)
o Latin “Il Duce” = the leader
When and why did Germany become a Facist State?
• Attitudes & poor economic conditions undermine democratic Weimar Republic
Define Democracy, Communism, and Facism
Democracy: a kind of government in which people rule themselves

Communism: a kind of government in which believed in economic equality to the point where all the people would share the wealth generated in a country

Facism: a type of government first used by Mussolini - belief in extreme nationalism, serve the state - dictatorship
What happened to German between 1919 and 1933?
1. inflation of currency - poverty
2. worst economic depression
3. people blamed democratic government
4. rise of Hitler and Nazi Party
5. Enabling Act - made Hitler all-powerful
6. End to democracy in Germany
What did Hitler and the NAZI party stand for? (3)
o Extreme nationalism
o Anti-democratic
o Anti-Versailles (restore “greatness”)
What happened (events) in Germany after Hitler came into power? (3)
Put in chronological order and explain each.
• Night of the Long Knives
o June 1934
o 1000 murdered – enemies of NAZIS
• Nuremberg Laws
o 1933-39
o Package of laws – harsh measures against Jews
 Had to wear Star of David at all times
 Lost professional careers/property
 No way mingle with German population
 Lost citizenship
• Kristallnacht
o “crystal night”; “night of the broken glass”
o November 9th, 1938
o Germans attacked Jews, and their properties
What/who is "gestapo" and "fuhrer"?
How did people in Germany greeted each other during the World War II?
• Gestapo - The secret police
• Feuhrer - leader

Greeted each other with “Heil Hitler”
There were two types of causes which led to the start of World War II
Name both and explain the difference.
Fundamental Cause - set the atmosphere
Immediate Cause - closer in time, and contribute to coming of events
What were the Fundamental Causes of World War II (7)?
1.Treaty of Versailles
2.Economic Hardship (Depression)
3.Political Instability
4.Hitler & Nazi Party
5.Extreme Nationalism
6.Failure of League of Nations
7.Democracies’ unwillingness to intervene/resist aggression by dictators
What were the immediate causes of World War II? (2)
Appeasement Crises
a.Re-militarization of Rhineland
b.Anschluss with Austria
c.Czechoslovakia Crisis
i.1937-8
ii.Germans in Sudetenland
iii.Munich Conference:
iv.Czechoslovakia sacrificed on the altar of appeasement
~ Appeasement fails ~

Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact
a.8/23/39 allowed Germany to attack Poland
What is appeasement?
Why appeasement first in World War II? (5)
Appeasement - policy whereby when a country becomes aggressive, other countries give the aggressor what it wants to prevent a war

1. Leaders fooled by Hitler (Chamberlain believed he was a reasonable men who would be satisfied)
2.Memories of WWI
3.Nations (US & CND) inward looking: too much economic chaos/political trouble at home to worry about fighting abroad
4.Reluctance to get involved in “a far away conflict over a little-known place”
5.Pacifism/Hopeful idealism
What were the two opposing groups during World War II?
Which countries were involved in which?
Axis: Germany, Italy, Japan
Allies: France, Britain, Common-wealth countries
During World War II, why did Germany invaded Poland?
1. Lebensraum = living space
2. Signed Non-Aggression Pact with S.U.
3. Hitler believed France/Britain not opposed
What was significant about Canada entering World War II?
Asserted Canada’s independence from Britain
Not entered immediately, or as a part of the British Empire
List in chronological order the events (wars and battles) happened during the World War II:

- The Italian Campaign
- Canadians in Hong Kong
- The Battle of Britain
- Battle of Dieppe
- Evacuation of Dunkirk
- The Battle of the Atlantic
- Pearl Harbour
1. Evacuation of Dunkirk
2. The Battle of Britain
3. Pearl Harbour
4. Canadians in Hong Kong
5. Battle of Dieppe
6. The Italian Campaign
7.The Battle of the Atlantic
What happened at the Evacuation of Dunkirk?
What was significant about this?
• Germans invaded France, Allied unable to fight back
o Allied pushed to seaboard, so British ordered evacuation of All Allied Forces
o All boats rescued 340 000 soldiers
o Left all heavy equipment on beaches
o German attack ordered to halt by Hitler (tried to negotiate peace /w Britain) – had time to organize defense and escape
• Allied defeated, French surrendered
• 1st Canadian Division ordered to France but retreated to Britain as France pursued for peace
o “Lived to fight another day”
o Canada becomes Britain’s most powerful ally after France surrendered
• Moral victory for allies – saved lives of thousands who could fight later on
What happened in the Battle of Britain?
What are two other names of this battle?
What was significant?
Fought over Britain air space
• Hitler wanted control of air to destroy Royal Navy that patrolled English Channel and protected Britain

British Royal Air Force (RAF) v.s. German Luftwaffe (air force)

o British outnumbered (3-1); however,
 Superior fighting planes
 Advantage in using radar to detect Germans
 Using radio waves – allow British to detect German bombers and fighter squadrons
 “Enigma” – German cipher machine for British to receive/decode German messages


o August 1940, G-Bombers lost & accidentally bombed civilians in London
-PM Churchill bombed Berlin
-Hitler abandoned assaults in RAF & sent daylight bombers to raid London = Blitz
-Gave RAF chance to train pilots & build back strength
• Late August/Spet, RAF able to regroup & win
Significance
o 1st time Hitler was denied conquest
What happened at Pearl Harbour?
Why was this significant?
December 7th, 1941
Pearl Harbour Naval Base, Hawaii, USA
Japanese bombed area
o To take over base
o Sunk ½ of US navy
US declared war on Japan
CND declared war on
Made US join war
o Major turning point for Allies
What happened at the event, "Canadians in Hong Kong"?
Why was this significant?
• Hong Kong (colony of Britain)
• 2 Canadian Battalion sent to help defend colony
o For garrison duty
o Never trained for front line duty
o Ironically, 1st Canadians to see front line combat
• HK fell on Christmas Day
• 1975 CNDS involved, 300 killed, 493 injured, 260 killed in POW
• Japanese victorious
• Cnds felt betrayed by Britain
What happened at the Battle of Dieppe?
Why was this significant?
• Dieppe, coast of France
• Objective: take beach & town of Dieppe back from Germans
o Allied Flotilla had a fight /w enemy convoy (losing element of surprise attack on Dieppe by British)
 Planned aerial/bombardment on Dieppe, but later canceled

• Germans won
• “rehearsal” for real invasion of Europe
o Diversion for conscription crisis (King)
o Allies learned that heavy air/sea support required for any further invasion of France
o Lesson learnt saved lives on Normandy beaches in future war
o Cnds again felt betrayed by Britain
What happened at the Italian Campaign?
• Sicily & Italy
• What happened?
o Allies attacked island of Sicily and captured it in 1 month
 Move into Italy
o Fought German army at Ortona (Germans had destroyed most streets), forced Canadians to clear house by house
o French-Canadian unit, Vandoos, drove back Germans
o Canadians troops broke through German defences before Rome
o Toughest battle
• Mussolini captured by Italians and was hung
• New government sighed armistice with Allies
• Allies won
• Canadian – important role in invasion of Italy (esp. Ortona)
• Significance
o Take pressure off Soviet Allies & divert Germans from NW Europe where the attack on Normandy was being planned
o Important towards liberation of Europe
o Occupied many German troops, making them unavailable for defense of France
What happened at the Battle of the Atlantic?
• Longest WWII campaign
• U-boats sink British supply ships (WWI reason)
o British & CND (& later US) began convoys
 RCN (royal Canadian navy) supplied Corvettes (ships)
o Gradually convoy – effective
 More ships supplied
 Navy – advance training
 Long-range bombs & sonar developed
• Allies won
• CND’s most decisive contribution to war
o Crucial to victory
• CND citizens manned freighters (great danger)
o Lack of ammunition & arms
What was the difference between Canadian women during World War I and World War II?
World War I: Home Front
World War II: some oversea - dangerous jobs, did ALL jobs men did
How did Canada paid for war during World War II? (3)
through taxes, war bond sales, gold payments from Britain
What was the Lend Lease Act, and what did the Canadian government do about this?
e. US introduced Lend Lease Act
i. Allied to buy materials from US /wo having to pay up front
f. Hyde Park Declaration
i. US would buy more raw materials from Canada
ii. Supply Cnd with American parts for weapons production
During the World War II, who was responsible for organizing Canadian industry for the war?
C.D. Howe
What was the War Supply Board during World War II?
Who created and managed it?
C.D. Howe
He was given wide-ranging powers over private industry to direct arms production.
What was the main goal of propaganda during WWII? (3)
1. participate in the war effort
2. create an image of the enemy as evil
3. discourage Canadians from carelessly talking about wartime matters
What happened with the conscription during World War II? (15)
1. Federal government did not want to introduce conscription/face another serious crisis (like WWI)
2. National Resources Mobilization Act (NRMA) gave government power to conscript people for service within Cnd (not oversea)
3. Recruitment rates for volunteers joining armed forces higher in Ontario than in Quebec
4. Issue of differences in recruitment rates among provinces became an issue in Parliament
5. Many French Canadians supported war effort, and denied that Quebec was not providing enough volunteers
6. King put the issue of whether or not he should be released from his no-conscription promise to the voters in a national plebiscite. Results are not binding
7. On April 17, 1942, Cnds in every province but Quebec voted “YES” to releasing King from his promise
8. By 1944, more Cnds recruits were needed
9. Recruitment rates had dropped off, causing King to consider conscription
10. In Nov, NRMA soldiers were ordered overseas
11. Opposition to conscription in Quebec was less violent than in WWI
12. First conscripts arrive in Europe only a few months bf end of war
13. Only 2463 conscripts reached front lines
14. King did not impose conscription as a means of evening up volunteer rates among provinces. It was used solely for the purpose to increase enlistment
15. King was re-elected in 1945 despite having introduced conscription during WWII
Who were the enemy aliens during World War II?
The government banned which political parties?
- Jewish, Japanese
- pro-NAZI political parties, Communist Party of Canada
What is Anti-Semitism?
What happened at the St.Louis Incident during World War II?
- hatred of Jewish people
- ocean liner - at Cuba
- could not accept refugees - blamed for poor performance of economy in Cuba
- arrived Canada's East coast, did not take in any
- many eventually died in NAZI concentration camp
What happened to the Japanese-Canadians before and after Pearl Harbour?
1. 1907 Vancouver race riot
a. Cnds smashed Japanese windows
b. terrorize them to leave Cnd
2. White Cnds frustrated
a. Japanese competing for jobs and willing to work for lower wages
3. 1928 King limited # of Japanese immigrants to control their population growth
a. to prevent future riots
4. bf WWII, Japanese Cnd denied right to vote, or join armed forces
ii. After Pearl Harbour
1. fear – supply Japan with secret info or help them to invade Canada
iii. 1942 internment of Jap Cnds
1. Choose deportation to japan or relocation
a. Internment camps
2. Custodian of Aliens Act
a. Liquidated possessions of Jap Cnds /wo their permission
3. 1944 law passed – Jap could be deported to Japan if they did not leave B.C. (even Cnd born)
4. Compensation
a. 1988, compensated for suffering
b. Compensation package giving $21 000 for each survivor
When is D-Day?
What happened on that day?
Why was it significant and successful?
• Normandy Landing, June 6th, 1944 (D-Day)
o Great Allied invasion of German-held Europe
 Allies pushing toward Germany from 3 fronts
• East – Soviet Union
• West – Allied power
• South – Italy
o Major turning point for the Allies
 But 1 more year till the end of the war
o Why Successful?
 Battle of Dieppe
• Learned strategy on D-Day
 Kept it a secret
 Planned Diversion – Fortitude South
• Phantom landing force at Kent
• Germans thought that the major assault was at Kent, not Normandy
o Canadians heading north along coast – Juno Beach
 Suffered 1000 casualties out of 30 000
 Most successful into mainland
o Hitler makes one last ditch attempt
 Sent troops to West (750 000)
 Slowed down Western Battle
 Soviet Union able to get Poland, then Berlin
Who was the founder of the League of Nations?
How?
Woodrow Wilson
- Fourteen Points
What was the main objective of the League of Nations?
How did they reach this objective?
- to preserve world-wide peace

1. Internation Cooperation
2. Arbitration
- quarrelling parties must submit dispute to a third ruling party
- promised not to fight until submit dispute to arbitration
3. Collective Security
- attack of one = attack of all
- if sanction imposed, members break off trade relationships with aggressor
- force through lack of supplies, to stop fighting
What was the biggest asset of the League of Nations?

What were the two main failures of it?
1. a general feeling (temporary) of optimism

2. incomplete membership
no adequate means to enforce its will on offenders
What did the soldiers faced in the 1920s? (3)
1. Growing discontent among soldiers in Europe after war
- Shipping inadequate; waited years to return

2. Wanted more money wanted more money than was given (pensions/other payments)
- Felt should be compensated for
pain/suffering

3. Difficulty adjusting to “normal” life after horrors
What were the positive changes during the 1920s? (3)
1. booming economy
2. women gained right to vote
3. general feeling of optimism that horrors of war left behind
Which Canadian group of artists emerged during the 1920s?
What was significant about them?
Who was the "founder"?
Group of Seven
- Most famous in 20th century
- Rejected realism, used bold strokes, heavy paint, and contrast
- Gradually gained popularity
- Only painted Canadian landscape (North)
- Tom Thompson – major force in creation of group
Which artist emerged during the 1920s and 1930s?
What did she do?
Emily Carr
- Sketched/painted scenes of Victoria, B.C. forests, and Aboriginal culture
- Won Governor General’s award for first novel – Klee Wyck (Laughing one)
What were some inventions that were invented during the 1920s?
How did these inventions "forever changed the lives of Canadians"?
Radio, Airplane, Car, Iron, Washing Machine...
Radio: information/entertainment

Car/Airplane: popularity created jobs, get around faster, drive from one end of country to another

Iron/Washing Machine: made women's life easier; more convenient and less time-consuming
List in chronological order the following events that happened during the 1920s and 1930s
What were significant about all of them?

1. Imperial Conference
2. Chanak Crisis
3. The Treaty of Versailles
4. The Statute of Westminster
All contribute to the growth of Canada's independence
1. The Treaty of Versailles
2. The Chanak Crisis
3. Imperial Conference
4. The Statute of Westminster
How did the Paris Peace Conference and the Treaty of Versailles contributed to Canada's independence?
1. Canada was given its own seat, seperate from Britain
2. independent signatory of Treaty of Versailles
How dud the Chanak Crisis contributed to Canada's Independence?
- British wanted Canada's help in an attack of Chanak
- Canada wouold not automatically send troops; only Canadian Parliament decides
- first time in history Canada refused unconditional support for Britain
How did the Imperial Conference contributed to the growth of Canada's independence?
- Balfour Report states: dominions were independent communities within British Empire; Canadian Governor General only a representative of British monarch
- not suborditnate to Britain
- "a colony had become a nation"
How did the Statue of Westminster contributed to the growth of Canada's independence?
- recognized in law the Balfour Report: Canada, an autonomous dominion (Imperial Conference)
- December, 1931: Canada became a sovereign state as part of the British Commonwealth of Nations
When was the birth of trade unions in Canada?
What happened?
1. during 1920s

2.
- Bolsheviks in Russia overthrew government
- encouraged world-wide workers to join revolution
- believed that everyone in a community should own/control productrion of goods
- Canadians feared spread of communism (Red Scarce)
- idea of workers joining together to form trade unions remained and demanded to improve working conditions
What happened at the Winnipeg General Strike in 1919?
- Workers believed standing together can force employers to pay higher
wages and shorter hours

- 30 000 workers strike spread – stores, factories closed, no public transportation, garbage collection, postal services, telephone operators, fire-fighters

i. Feared of communist revolution
ii. Officials banned all parades

Made changes to Criminal Code
1. any person born outside of Canada, suspected of trying to cause a revolution could be arrested/deported without a hearing/trial

= sent troops with machine guns to Winnipeg
= raided union leaders homes and arrested 10 strike leaders
= crowd in parade set on fire a streetcar
1. police charged crowd
2. 1 man killed, 30 injured, hundreds arrested

“Bloody Saturday”

Central Strike Committee ordered workers back to jobs

Successful in drawing attention to social/economic problems people faced
1. labour leaders more involved in politics
2. Pro-worker political parties popular
What were the changing roles of women during the 1920s?
1. more controlled own lives
2. held jobs previously belonged to men
3. involved in sports "associated" only with men, e.g. boxing
4. less clothing restrictions
Who was the First Female Member of Parliament?
When
Agnes Macphail
1921
What did the "Famous Five" do during the 1920s?
Why was it significant?
- asked supreme court of Canada to consider, if the word "person" refers to female
- after 3 months, SC responded no
- then asked Britsh Privy Council
- responded yes

- victory paved way to greater participation of women in public life
Define following words:
- Laissez Faire
- Revenue
- Expenditures
1. Laissez Faire = to do
- government did not interfere with economy before 1920s

2. Revenue = money taken in by government
- e.g. tax

3. Expenditures = money spent by government
Define following words:
- Budget
- Balanced Budget
- Deficit
1. Budget: spending plan developed by government
- all revenues/expenditures totalled

2. Balanced Budget:
- revenues = expenditures
- always kept balanced budget before Great Depression (exp.WWI)

3. Deficit
- expenditures greater than revenues
- natioal debt
Define following words:
- Currency
- Capitalism
- Market Economy
1. Currency
a. Actual money used in a particular country
b. Determine value – productivity, size of national debt, interest rates, relative value to other currencies

2. Capitalism
a. Economic system in which individuals/business firms carry on production/exchange of goods & servies through a network of market

3. Market Economy
a. Countries have a capitalist economic system
b. Allow buyers/sellers to come together so that goods and services can be exchanged for profit
Define the following concept:
Supply and Demand
Supply & Demand:
Concept to explain the pricing structure in a market economy

Supply: availability of product/service
Demand: amount population wants

Supply high: low cost
Demand high: high cost
Explain the business cycle:
Every 5-6 Years:

Prosperity...Recession...Depression...
Recovery...

Prosperity:
unemployment low,
wages, prices, sales high,
more strikes
seller's market

Depression:
unemployment high,
wges, prices, sales low,
less strikes
buyer's market
What were the main causes of the Great Depression in the 1930s? (5)
Explain all except for Stock Market
1. Overproduction
- • Manufactured goods being stockpiled leading to layoffs
• Layoffs meant people has less money to buy products

2. Canada's Reliance on Exporting Staple Products
• Wheat, timber, minerals
• Without a market, economy dropped
• “Dust bowl of the 1930s”

3. Canada's Dependence on United States
• 40% of Canada’s exports
• When US raised tariffs, Canada lost vital trading partner

4. Economic Protectionism and Tariffs
• Restricted trade between nations
• Led by US – forced others to do the same

5. International Debts after WWI
• Countries couldn’t pay back debs if they could not make $ through trade/exporting goods
What was Black Tuesday?
Why did it happened?
October 29, 1929, Stock market crashed\

o Many investors buying on margin – borrowing money to buy shares
o Wheat price dropped (because of competition & natural disaster)
o By Sept 1929, some investors started to sell off stocks
o Soon, the # of stocks for sale outnumbered the demand for new shares
o Value of stocks decreased dramatically
What was Canada's Responses to the Great Depression?
(What did Canadians do?) (5)
- sell products door-to-door, panhandled, approached churches/charities for help, drifted in search of employment, collected public relief
What was "riding the rails"?
o Hitching a ride on freight trains by trying to ride on top of cars
o Riding back & forth of country in search for a job
What was "pogey"?
government relief
What did Bennett do during the Great Depression?
1. Unemployment Relief Camps: single, unemployed men - work on public work prjuects

2. high tariffs to protect Canadian industries

3. Bennett's New Dea
What was the "Bennet's New Deal"? (9)
1. Progressive taxation
2. Maximum number of hours in a work week
3. Introduction of minimum wage
4. Stronger regulation of working conditions
5. Unemployment insurance
6. Health and accident insurance
7. Revised old age pension plan
8. agricultural support
9. marketing board to regulate wheat prices
What was the "On-to-Ottawa" and "Regina Riot"?
What was the result?
relief camps not enough to address major financial crisis

relief camp workers frustrated, boarded trains in Vancouver for Ottawa, aka On-To-Ottawa Trek

WHen they reached Regina, stopped by 300 RCMP

fought crowd for more than 3 hours
dozens injured, one officer beaten to death
1 striker met PM Bennet, but to no avail

King defeated Bennett as a result
What were the consequences of the Great Depression? (4)
1. Unemployment: no safety nets
2. Banking Failures: banks also went bankrupt
3. Political Consequences: New political parties
4. Changing Role of Government: Unemployment insurance, sick & child benefits, (Bennett's New Deal)
What did the Canadian government provided for women during the World War II? (2)
1. day care
2. tax breaks
What was World War I known as?
"The War to End All Wars"
Why did so many joined the army force in World War I?
- offered glorious adventure
- legendary, romantic, heroic
What are the four "main" reasons that started World War I?
1. Imperialism
2. Militarism
3. Nationalism
4. Alliance System
What is Imperialism?
Why are some countries becom imperialistic around World War I?
What were some conflicts that arose?
What were some examples of imperialistic countries and popular colonies?
1. extending rule of authority of a country over other countries/territories
2. forming/maintaining an empire through establishment of colonies
Pride, Power, and Trade
Industrialization: needed
- Raw materials,
- New Markets
3. Conflicts
- Imperialistic v.s. Conquered
- Competition for colonies
4. Britain, France, Germany, Russia
5. Africa/SE Asia
What is militarism?
• Policy of making a country’s armed forces very strong; dominates government policy
What was a Two-Power Standard?
- British navy equal/better than any other 2 navies combined
What is an Arm Race?
Give an example of this during WWI
- largest/strongest navy competition
- Germany v.s. Britain
What is Nationalism?
What are some conflicts that occured during WWI?
Two Types
1. Strong feeling of patriotism/pride
Desire to preserve & strengthen own language, religion & traditions

2. Within an ethnic group that does not have own country
Desire to be liberated from the dominant group

Conflicts
- Different ethnic groups in an area
- 2 countries fighting for own interest
What is the Alliance System?
What were the two alliances during World War I?
- Close association of nations for the achievement of common objectives/purpose of joint military protection

- Triple Entente (Allied Power)
- Triple Alliance (Central Power)
Which countries were in the Allied Power (Triple Alliance)?
- Britain
- France
- Russia
Which countries were in the Central Power (Triple Alliance)?
- Germany
- Austria-Hungary
- Italy
What was the trigger event (cause) of World War I?
What happened which led to the beginning of the war?
1. Assassination
- June 26th, 1914, Archduke Ferdinand, heir to the Austrian throne, killed by a Serb (Gavrilo Princip) while visiting Sarajevo

2. Blank Cheque
- Germany gave Austria-Hungary the famous Blank Cheque

3. Austria Hungry blames Serbia for the death of Archduke

4. The Ultimatum
- Austria sent Serbia an ultimatum – a threat which states that one must meet certain conditions or face the consequences

5. Serbia’s Reply (asked for clarification)

6. On July 28th 1914, Austria-Hungary Declared War on Serbia

7. Russia’s Mobilization
- Gave Serbia blank cheque and mobilize army against Austria-Hungary

8. France Supported Russia

9. Germany ordered France and Russia to stop mobilizing

10. Germany Declared War on Russia

11. Germany Declared War on France

12. Schlieffan Plan
- Pass through Belgium on the way to France (Belgium neutrality was guaranteed by Britain)

13. Germany Invaded Belgium

14. Britain Declared War on Germany
What was the "Schlieffan's Plan"?
Why was it not successful?
To avoid the two-front war

- Most of army to defeat France in 6 weeks
- Then transfer forces to East to defeat Russia
- Pass through Belgium on the way to France (Belgium neutrality was guaranteed by Britain)
Where did the CEF (Canadian Expeditionary Force) fought?
Western Front
Who became the Canadian Commander in 1917?
Arthur Currie
What happened at the Battle of Marne?
reached a stalemate
What is a stalemate?
when both armies can not advance; dig trenches
What are trenchs?
Why did soldiers dug trenches during the WWI?
Once soldiers reached a stalemate, both sides dug trenches to prevent enemy's fire

it was a standard war tactic
What was the narrow strip of land between the trenches called?
No Man's Land
What was "going over the top" in trench warfare means?
Officers ordered an advance onto No Man's Land

almost certainly means death
What happened when soldiers captured enemy's front line in trench warfare?
Enemies merely moved back onto reserve trenches
Barbed wire stretched across the new patch of No Man's Land
Why were conditions terrible in the trenches?
1. No baths
2. Flu/fever kill entire group
3. trench foot = 3x as large
What is Battle of Attrition?
outlasting enemy in trench warfare
What is Total War?
all the resources of a nation are organized for one purpose - to win the war
What happened at the Battle of Ypres?
Where?
Which literature was written in memory of this?
German used poison gas against Canadians and French

Belgium

In Flander's Field
List in chronological order the following battles that occured during World War I

1. Battle of Somme
2. Battle of Vimy Ridge
3. Battle of Ypres
4. Battle of Passchendaele
3. Battle of Ypres
1. Battle of Somme
2. Battle of Vimy Ridge
4. Battle of Passchendaele
What happened at the Battle of Somme during World War I?
Where?
How much land was gained?
Allied forces wanted to end trench warfare by a large attack against the Germans
Used tanks for the first time

France
1 mile
What happened at the Battle of Vimy Ridge?
Where?
Why was this significant?
After Vimy Ridge fell into German hands, Canadians tried to regain

France

Canadians successful
- fought as one unit
- symbol of Canada's independence and nationhood
- troops became the best in the Western Front

Major Turning Point in War
What happened at the Battle oF Passchendaele?
Where?
Gained how much land?
Canadian troop asked to attack Germans
Arthur Currie overruled - knew needless sacrifice

Belgium
1/5 Canadians survived
gained 7km land which Germans soon won back
What was the impact of tanks in World War I?
- first time - Battle of Somme
- to solve trench warfare problems
- major reason for allied victory
What was the impact of poison gas in World War I?
- first time used in Battle of Ypres by Germans
- precursor to future gas attacks in history
What was the impact of machine guns during World War I?
- efficient at killing enemy when crossing no man's land
- accounted for most deaths during the war
What percentage was Canadians in the British Air Force in 1918?
40%
Why did so many joined the air force?
1. trench warfare offered no glory
2. seemed "cleaner"
3. seemed "safer"
What is a dogfight?
What is an ace?
Name a famous German ace and two famous Canadian aces
Dogfight: aerial dual
Ace: shoots down 5 or more planes
German: Red Barron
Canadian: Captain Roy Brownd shot Red Barron Down

Canadian: Billy Bishop - awarded the Victoria Cross: British honour for courage and bravery
What did the pilots do during WWI when they wanted to bomb an area?
They put bombs on their laps and threw them out
What was the main reason for casualties of war (air force) during WWI?

By 1916, what was the average life span of a pilot?
1. mechanical failure
2. 3 weeks
What were German submarines called?
U-boats
In 1915, what ship did the Germans sank?
Lusitania
Why did U-Boats attacked British ships?
Germans wanted to starve Britain into submission
In February 1917, what policy did the Germans (at sea) introduced?

What does it mean?
In four months, how many ship did the German sank?
Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
- sink any ship in the sea

- 4 months, 1000 ship
What was convoy system?
- to protect allied ship from German U-boat
- ship protected by armed destroyers
- ended threat of U-Boats
Why did USA entered World War I?
1. sinking of Lusitania
changing public opinions toward Germany

2. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare
US ship became a target

3. Germany encouraged Mexico to attack US
Britain stopped the infamous Zimmerman Telegram - too eager to give to US - knew it would lead to US join war

Turning Point for Allied Power
Gave Huge Advantage to allies
What happened during the last hundred days?
a. Allied effort broke the back of the German military
b. 6 weeks, Canadians at forefront against Germans
c. Won back France, Belgium – stop when reach German border
What happened in Russia during the last 100 days?
What is the Brest-Litovsk?
March 1917, Tsar Nicholas (autocracy in Russia) overthrown – emergent democracy (Provisional Government) – continued unsuccessful war – overthrown in October.

Bolsheviks (communists), led by Vladimir Lenin, opened peace negotiations with Germans

Gave Germans all of Poland, Lithuania, and Ukraine

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
1. Russia out of war
2. Germans 1 front war
During the end of World War I, even though Russia was out of the war and Germany has only 1-front war, why did Allied power still remain strong?
US joined
When did Germany surrendered in World War I?
November 11, 1918
What is an armistice?
warring countries agreed to stop fighting to move into a peace conference
What is the "Fourteen Points"?
Who created it?
Woodrow Wilson
1. Internationalism
2. Self-Determination
What was the "most important international agreement of the 20th century"?
Treaty of Versailles - Paris Peace Conference 1919
Which two groups clashed in the Paris Peace Conference?
Which countries supported which?
Realists: believed that Germany should be crippled physically - can not right another war again
France

Idealists: believed that Germany should not be crippled - revenge
US

Britain: between; wanted Germany to pay reparation but wanted to trade with Germany in the future
Who were the "Big Four" in the Paris Peace Conference?
1. Woodrow Wilson (US)
2. Clemenceau (Fr)
3. Lloyd-George (Br)
4. Orlando (It)
What was the War Guilt Clause?
Germany alone is responsible for World War I
What were the summary of Provisions in the Treaty of Versailles? (9)
1. War-Guilt Clause
2. Alsace-Loraine return to France
3. Poland given strip of land
4. Germany surrender all colonies to League of Nations
5. limit in size of German army
6. Surender entire merchant fleet
7. Rhineland demilitarize
8. no unification between Austria/Germany
9. constitution of League of Nations
What was the failure of the Treaty of Versailles?
- crippled Germany (revenge)
- several groups left without a homeland
How did Canada became involved with WWI?
automatically involved as a part of the British empire
How did Canada offered support for World War I?
• Offered Britain force of 25 000 men trained, equipped, and paid for by Canadian government
• 10 000 Canadians volunteered ($1/day)
Why did Canadians joined World War I?
1. patriotism
2. feeling of exitement and adventure
What were some sacrifices in Canada during World War I? (3)
1. Rations
2. Mandatory waste reduction
3. Daylight saving - save energy
What happened at the Halifax Explosion in 1917?
a French munition ship collided with another vessel in the Halifax Harbour

exploded - fire, and tidal wave, killed 2000

Boston, US, donated over $3 million
Whole world donated over $30 million
Who were the Enemy Aliens during World War I?
Germans, Austrians, Hungarians, Ukraines - citizens/residents in Canada
What was the War Measure Act in WWI?
1. could be arrested/search
2. put in internment camps in remote areas
What was censorship in Canada during WWI?
banning of any publication of books/magazins in enemy languages
What is conscription?
What is the Military Bill Service?
What happened in WWI about conscription?
1917, volunteer not keeping up; proposed conscription

Canada into two
English-Canadians believed Quebec not supporting war

Quebecois
i. Essential farmers
ii. Not same ties with British
iii. Felt being treated like second-class citizen
iv. Broken cultural/sentimental ties with France
v. Minister of Militia appointed a Protestant clergyman to supervise recruiting
vi. Training in Quebec in English

Military Service Bill (introduced by PM Borden in 1917
a. Makes conscription compulsory for all males (20-35)
b. Sick, conscientious objectors/pacifists (fighting against religious beliefs) not forced
c. Riots in Montreal/Quebec City
What were the new roles of women during WWI?
1.did “unsuitable jobs before 1914” – in industry, banks, on police forces

2. suffragettes organized to gain the right to vote
What was the Wartime Election Act in WWI?
allowed mothers, sisters, wifes of soldiers for federal vote
Define Propaganda
Why was it used during WWI?
1. any strategy using false or party true information to pursuade people into believing a certain idea

2. make people join the army
influence thoughts on war
What was the effect of WWI in Canada? (9)
1. business matured
2. troops gained recognition (Vimy)
3. women gained right to vote
4. Paris Peace Conference - independent
5. population increased - immigration

6. cost $3 billion
7. introduced income tax
8. 60 000 Canadians died, 17800 injured
9. deepend french/english relationship
What happened with the Boer War in 1899?
Why was this significant?
Britain fighting wars - asked Canada for help

Canada into two (English v.s. French)
Laurier sent a "volunteer" troop (7000)
"compromise"
English: not enough
French: too much
splited Canada
What happened with the Naval Issue?
Why was this significant?
Britain v.s. Germany (arm race)
asked dominons to contribute to cost

Canada - "compromise"
deeply divide Canada

Naval Service Bill: establish its own navy
under British control during emergency
Royal Canadian Navy (RCN)
never built, bought two ancient British cruisers
English: not enough
French: too far
What happened at the Alaska Boundary Dispute?
Why was this significant?
"panhandle" strip running down Pacific Coast - Klondike gold - both claimed

3 Amerians, 2 Canadians, 1 British Judge (Alverstone)
British sided with Americans

Canadians furious - British
sold out Canada's interest in order to keep peace with US (needed US as an ally in growing rivalry with Germany)

Canada should play a more active role in its own foreign affairs
What happened with the reciprocity and the 1911 Election?
announced reciprocity: free-trade agreement with US

Farmers agreed: cheaper machinery
Business disagreed: more competitions

As a result, Laurier lost in election
What is social reform?
making citizens' lives easier in working/living conditions
What are trade unions?
People with similar jobs come together to obtain a goal
What is temperance and the WCTU?
temperance: refusing to drink alcohol
WCTU: Women Christian's Temperance Union
What is prohibition?
banning of sales/manufacture of alcohol
What is suffrage and suffragist?
Suffrage: right for women to vote
suffragist: those who believed that women should have the right to vote
What was the Manitoba Schools Question?
Government wanted to eliminate the dual school system (only english)
French disagreed
What was the North-West Schools Question?
Catholic schools in Saskatchewan and Alberta should not be supported by government
Why were immigrants important in the Manitoba/North-West Schools questions?
They were the reason why government wanted to eliminate the dual (assimilate)
Who was Henri Bourassa?
- federal Member of Parliament from Quebec
- suggested bilingualism, offical flag, foreign policy different from Britain
- did not agreed with Quebec's seperation
- believed English/French should have the same rights
Who was Nellie McClung?
- female suffragist
- advocated social rights and reforms for women
What happened when Laurier refused to listen to Bourassa?
Laurier lost French support