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92 Cards in this Set

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What were the reasons for the Establishment of the English colonies?
The Three G's
Gold- European investors wanted to make a profit
God- Many groups founded the colonies to practice their religion (pilgrims, Puritans, Quakers)
Glory- European kings wanted wealth and power
WHAT ANIMAL BARKS
Dogs, yo wut up dogs or your mom
Who were the Puritans?
A group of Protestants that were persecuted in England for their religious beliefs and settle in the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
Who were the Quakers?
A group of Protestants that settle Pennsylvania under the leadership of William Penn. They practice religious tolerance and believe in equality for all people.
Who was James Ogelthorpe?
Founder of the colony of Georgia, he set it up as a safe haven for England’s poor especially those who had been imprisoned for debts.
List some of the products of the New England colonies.
Fish, lumber, furs, and shipbuilding
List some of the products of the Middle colonies.
Grain (wheat, barley, rye – they produce so much they are nicknamed the Breadbasket colonies)
List some of the products of the Southern colonies.
Tobacco, rice, indigo (blue dye)
(In the 1800’s add Cotton)
Why did a plantation system develop?
In the Southern colonies, the land was such that crops such as tobacco, rice, and indigo grew extremely well. These crops required both large amounts of land and large amounts of labor (which contributed to the expansion of slavery)
What was the Mayflower Compact?
An agreement signed by all the men aboard the Mayflower setting up a voluntary system of government. It was an early example of a social contract.
Who was William Penn?
He started a colony in North America called Pennsylvania, which had freedom of religion, allowed all taxpaying males to vote, and had a two-house legislature.
What was the Virginia House of Burgesses?
The first colonial representative assembly founded in 1619. (leads to the Congress we have today)
What is mercantilism?
It was an economic theory in the 1500s and 1600s which favored more exports than imports. It was the belief that the colonies should supply raw materials and provides markets for finished goods for the mother country (England).
What was the main cause of the American Revolution?
Britain’s taxation policy to pay for the French and Indian war. Britain felt Americans should help pay for their own defense. Americans felt they should have say in laws that effect them. “No Taxation without representation”
What was the Proclamation Line of 1763?
It was an imaginary line along the Appalachian mountains drawn by King George III that the colonists could not cross. It further angered colonists.
What was the Boston Massacre?
It was a riot by colonists against British soldiers. British soldiers opened fire on the colonists, killing 5 colonists. Sam Adams and Paul Revere use the incident as propaganda.
What was the Boston Tea Party?
A protest by the Sons of Liberty in 1773 of a new tax on tea. They boarded a British ship dressed as Native Americans and poured the tea overboard. It caused a strong reaction by the British, and they passed the Intolerable acts restricting the freedom of the citizens of Boston.
Who were Loyalists?
Loyal subjects of the King and Britain
Who were patriots?
A really super Football team in the NFL that won the superbowl 3 times.
What were minutemen?
Bands of militia that could appear a moment’s notice to fight against the British.
What was Benjamin Franklin’s role in the American Revolution?
Delegate to the Continental Congress, influential in convincing delegated at the convention to declare independence, got the help of France (money and soldiers), negotiated the Treaty of Paris at the end of the American Revolution.
What was Samuel Adam’s role in the American Revolution?
Formed the Sons of Liberty, started Committees of Correspondence in all 13 colonies to protest British policies, leader of the Boston Tea Party.
Hi what is your response
yo wuz up i be chilin up in da crib
What is the Declaration of Independence?
It stated the reasons why the colonies were declaring independence. It announced the purpose of government was to protect people'’ unalienable rights and that people had the right to overthrow an oppressive government, and listed the grievances against King George.
What were some of the grievances listed in the Declaration of Independence?
1. King imposed taxes with consent
2. King deprived colonists of their rights of representation
3. King kept large standing army among the colonists.
4. King quartered troops in colonists’ homes without their consent.
5. King deprived colonists of a trial by jury.
What was George Washington’s role in the American Revolution?
He was commander of the Continental Army (American forces), he later becomes president of the Constitutional Convention, and the first President of the United States
What was John Paul Jones’ role in the American Revolution?
Captain of the Bonhomie Richard during the revolution; said “I have not yet begun to fight.” He is also credited with starting the U.S. Navy
Who was Abigail Adams?
Wife of Patriot and second President John Adams, mother of John Quincy Adams – she wrote letters to her husband during the time of the writing of the Declaration of Independence imploring the Continental Congress to “remember the women” (she was a very early suffragette).
Who was Thomas Jefferson?
Author of the Declaration of Independence and 3 rd President of the United States.
Who was King George III?
Ruler of Great Britain during the American Revolution.
Why did the Americans and British fight at Lexington?
The British were marching to arrest Samuel Adams and other patriot leaders and to capture American weapons and gunpowder.
Why is the Battle of Lexington and Concord significant?
Open hostilities break out when shots are fired between the British Soldiers and the Colonists. This was the first battle of the American Revolution.
What battle was a turning point of the American Revolution?
The Battle of Saratoga, it was a turning point because it was a victory which convinced France to send money, weapons, and assistance to America.
What battle ended the American Revolution?
Battle of Yorktown
What treaty ended the American Revolution?
Treaty of Paris 1783
What were the terms of The Treaty of Paris of 1783?
1. The U.S. became an independent nation.
2. The Mississippi would be the western boundary of the United States
3. British loyalists were to be paid back
4. Florida would be returned to Spain
What was the Article of Confederation?
The first government of the United States, it was a failure and later replaced by the Constitution we have today.
What was the Northwest Ordinance?
An act of Congress in 1787 that provided for the governing of the Northwest territory (area north and west of the Ohio river) and a way for those territories to join America a states rather than colonies. It was the only successful legislation of the government under the Articles of Confederation.
What were the weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation?
The national government had no power to tax, no president, no court system, no common currency (money), and it could not regulate trade.
What happened of importance in 1787?
The Constitution was written to replace the Article of Confederation as our form of government.
What historical documents were used to give ideas when writing the Constitution about good things to include in our government?
Magna Carta, English Bill of Rights, Mayflower Compact
What was the Magna Carta?
An Agreement signed by King John of England in 1215, it limited the power of the King and gave power to the barons. It was the first example of limited government.
How did the Magna Carta influence the U.S. system of government?
Convinced the Founders that government should be limited and not have absolute power.
What was the English Bill of Rights?
A 1689 British document protecting the rights of English citizens, it gave freedom of speech for members of parliament and guaranteed free parliamentary elections.
How did the English Bill of Rights influence the U.S. system of government?
It made citizens believe in freedoms of speech and the right of representative government.
Who was President of the Constitutional Convention?
George Washington
Who was James Madison?
He was known as the author of the Virginia Plan, known as the Father of the U.S. Constitution, and 4th President of the United States
What was the Great Compromise?
It resolved a dispute between the large and small states over representation at the Constitutional Convention. The compromise stated that we would have a two-house legislature – one house (the House of Representatives) based on proportional representation and the other (the Senate) based on equal representation (2 per state).
What was the 3/5th compromise?
It settled the debate between the Northern and Southern States about whether or not to count slaves as part of the population for purposes of representation. It stated that 3 out of every 5 slaves would count.
What is federalism?
A system of government in which individual states keep some powers of government and the national government is supreme.
What is limited government?
The government only has the power its citizens give to it. An example of the government’s powers being limited is the Bill of Rights (For example they need a search warrant to enter your home).
What are checks and balances?
Each of the three branches (executive, legislative, and judicial) has controls on the other branches. For example, the president may veto a law but Congress can override that veto with a 2/3rds vote.)
What is Separation of Powers?
The Constitution divides the power of government into three branches. The Executive (president) which enforces the laws, the legislative (Congress) which make the laws, and the judicial (supreme court) which interprets the laws.
What is popular sovereignty?
The people rule, or hold final authority. The people do this in our government by electing representatives to Congress, or anytime you vote.
What is a republic?
Rule by popularly elected representatives.
What does ratification mean?
Formal approval, to pass something and put into effect (for ex. The states had to ratify the Constitution before it became our form of government)
What was someone called who supported the ratification of the Constitution?
Federalists
Who were the federalists?
Alexander Hamilton led them and believed in a strong national government, they also wanted a loose interpretation of the Constitution to give more power to the national government.
What was someone called who opposed the ratification of the Constitution?
Anti-federalist
What were the arguments of the anti-federalists?
1. The Constitutional Convention had overstepped their bounds. They were only supposed to revise the Articles of Confederation.
2. The nation was too large to be controlled by a central government
3. Also, they were concerned about protecting people’s individual rights, and demanded a bill of rights be added to the Constitution to protect our liberties.
What impact did Washington’s farewell address have on the foreign policy of the nation?
He urged America to avoid alliances with other nations and to stay neutral.
What are inalienable rights (sometimes also called individual rights)?
A right you have just because you were born human, it should not be taken away.
What protects our inalienable rights?
The Bill of Rights
What is the Bill of Rights?
The first ten amendments to the Constitution, which protect our basic rights.
Name three unalienable rights?
According to the Declaration of Independence they are life, liberty and property.
What rights are protected by the first amendment?
Freedoms of religion, speech, press, assembly, and petition.
Summarize the rights guaranteed in The Bill of Rights?
It provides protections against the abuse of individual rights by the government. Expression, religion, right to bear arms, no troops in private homes, and due process of the law are all among these rights protected.
What right does the 2nd Amendment to the Constitution protects?
The right to bear arms (keep a weapon).
What right does the 3rd Amendment to the Constitution protects?
No quartering of soldiers in people’s homes.
What is civil disobedience?
Disobeying what you believe to be an unjust law it is done peacefully and you take the punishment for that disobedience.
Name one example of civil disobedience
Henry David Thoreau’s refusal to pay a tax
What is the importance of the supreme court case Marbury v. Madison?
Established the Supreme Court’s power of Judicial Review (the right to decide whether or not a law agrees with the constitution. It helped promote a strong national government.
What is the importance of the Supreme Court case McCulloch v. Maryland?
It lessened the power of the state governments and said that the Congress had the right to establish a national bank. The court also said that state governments do not have the power to tax federal government agencies. It helped strengthen the federal government.
What is the importance of the Supreme Court case Gibbons v. Ogden?
Stated that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce (business that crosses state lines).
How are amendments to the Constitution proposed? 2/3rds vote of the House and Senate or 2/3rds of State legislatures.
How are amendments to the Constitution ratified? Approved by 3/4ths of State legislatures OR or in conventions in 3/4ths of the states.
Where did American political parties originate? They started in President Washington’s cabinet. Hamilton and Jefferson disagreed on many issues but mainly on how powerful the federal government should be. They both developed followings in Congress and these groups grew into political parties.
What was the impact of the War of 1812? 1. Unity and Pride of America
2. Opened new areas for settlements.
3. Spain sells Florida to the United States.
Who wrote the Star Spangled Banner? Francis Scott Key
Who was James Monroe? 5th President of the United States, Issued a statement during his term in office stating that Europe could no longer make colonies in the Western Hemisphere (North and South America) and we would protect the newly independent Latin American nations.
What was the Monroe Doctrine? A statement of U.S. foreign policy by President Monroe in 1823 that stated that the nations of North and South America were “not to be considered the subject for future colonization by European powers.” The United States he said would view any efforts to take over “any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety.”
What was the importance of the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828? It signaled the start of more participation in government and America becoming more democratic. This was the first election in which all white men who owned property could vote.
What happened of importance in 1803? President Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from France. The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States.
What is Manifest Destiny? The belief in the 1840s that the U.S. had the right and duty to bring progress and democracy to all of North America and expand its borders all the way to the Pacific Ocean.
What was the significance of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803? It doubled the size of the United States.
Which president ignored the Supreme Court’s decision to allow the Cherokees to keep their land and allowed the state militias to drive them out in a Trail of Tears? Andrew Jackson
What started the Mexican War? It started as a boundary dispute (argument) over whether the Nueces river or the Rio Grande was the boundary
What is sectionalism? Strong interests in a single region rather than the nation as a whole. (for example slavery in the south)
What is a tariff? A tax placed on imports
What is a protective tariff? A tax on imports that protects American made goods from being undersold by cheaper foreign-made goods. It protects American businesses and the country’s economy.
Which part of the country favored high tariffs? The North (Since in the North they were manufacturers they liked it since it encouraged Americans to buy their products and protected them from cheap imports).
What is manufacturing? Making things
Define the industrial Revolution The dramatic change in economies brought about by the use of machines to do work formerly done by hand. It first started in England in the late 1700’s and then spread to America and the rest of Europe.
What were the economic factors that brought about rapid industrialization (movement to factory production) and urbanization (moving to city life)? During the War of 1812, Britain blockaded many American ports cutting us off from many foreign manufacturers. Americans were forced to do without goods they normally bought or learn to make it themselves. American manufacturing soon began to grow and became a major force in our economy.
Who invented the steamboat? Robert Fulton
What was the effect of the development of the steamboat? It made transportation (the movement of goods and people) faster and easier.
Who invented the cotton gin? Eli Whitney
Who invented interchangeable parts? Eli Whitney
What the effect of the development of the cotton gin? It made the production of cotton cheaper and did the work of 1,000 men. It created a boom in the southern economy because cotton could now be grown at a huge profit. It also increased the demand for slaves to plant and pick the cotton.
What was the nullification crisis? South Carolina said that the federal tariff was not going to be enforced in South Carolina. President Jackson threatened force but eventually South Carolina gave in.
What was the Missouri Compromise? The agreement of 1820 that admitted Missouri as a slave state, Maine as a free state and said that slavery would not exist in territories above 3630.
What did the compromise of 1850 do? 1. California admitted as a free state
2. Territories bought from Mexico would use popular sovereignty to decide about slavery
3. Slave trade banned in Washington D.C.
4. A stricter Fugitive Slave Law was put in place
Who was John C. Calhoun? The Senator from South Carolina (also later vice-president and Secretary of State) that spoke out for states rights and the southern way of life.
Who was Henry Clay? A politician from Kentucky who made deals to hold the U.S. together, because of this he was known as the great compromisor.
Who was Daniel Webster? He was a Senator from Massachusetts who believed the Union (federal government) must be more powerful than the states and it must be preserved.
Who was Elizabeth Cady Stanton? She was the women’s right’s leader that helped draw up the “Declaration of Sentiments”(sometimes also called the Seneca Falls Declaration)
What was the Women’s rights Movement? The movement to attain suffrage (voting rights) for women.
What was the temperance movement? A crusade against the use of alcoholic beverages especially to excess.
Who wrote Uncle Tom’s Cabin? Harriet Beecher Stowe
What was the significance of Uncle Tom’s Cabin? It convinced many Americans of the cruelty of slavery and sparked the abolitionist movements spread.
Who was Frederick Douglas? He was a former slave, who became probably the greatest black abolitionist. He was one of the anti-slavery movement’s best speakers.
What is an abolitionist? Someone who works to end slavery.
Who was William Lloyd Garrison? Published an abolitionist newspaper called the liberator that called for the end of slavery.
What was the Fugitive slave law? It required all states to help return runaway slaves As part of the Compromise of 1850.
What is the significance of the dates 1861-1865? The Civil War
Which side won the Civil War? The Union (the North)
Which amendment abolished (ended) slavery? 13th amendment
Which amendment gave citizenship to former slaves? 14th amendment
Which amendment gave blacks the right to vote? 15th amendment
What is a primary source? The original records of an event. They include eyewitness reports, records created at the time of an event, speeches, letters by people involved in an event, photographs, and artifacts.
What is a secondary source? The later writings and interpretations of historians and other writers. Some are Textbooks and articles and often provide summaries of information you would find in a primary source.
Stated that only the federal government could regulate interstate commerce (business that crosses state lines).
How are amendments to the Constitution proposed? 2/3rds vote of the House and Senate or 2/3rds of State legislatures.
How are amendments to the Constitution ratified?
Approved by 3/4ths of State legislatures OR or in conventions in 3/4ths of the states.
Where did American political parties originate?
They started in President Washington’s cabinet. Hamilton and Jefferson disagreed on many issues but mainly on how powerful the federal government should be. They both developed followings in Congress and these groups grew into political parties.
What was the impact of the War of 1812?
1. Unity and Pride of America
2. Opened new areas for settlements.
3. Spain sells Florida to the United States.
Who wrote the Star Spangled Banner?
Francis Scott Key
Who was James Monroe?
5th President of the United States, Issued a statement during his term in office stating that Europe could no longer make colonies in the Western Hemisphere (North and South America) and we would protect the newly independent Latin American nations.
What was the Monroe Doctrine?
A statement of U.S. foreign policy by President Monroe in 1823 that stated that the nations of North and South America were “not to be considered the subject for future colonization by European powers.” The United States he said would view any efforts to take over “any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety.”
What was the importance of the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828?
It signaled the start of more participation in government and America becoming more democratic. This was the first election in which all white men who owned property could vote.
What happened of importance in 1803?
President Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from France. The Louisiana Purchase doubled the size of the United States.
What is Manifest Destiny?
The belief in the 1840s that the U.S. had the right and duty to bring progress and democracy to all of North America and expand its borders all the way to the Pacific Ocean.
What was the significance of the Louisiana Purchase in 1803?
It doubled the size of the United States.
Which president ignored the Supreme Court’s decision to allow the Cherokees to keep their land and allowed the state militias to drive them out in a Trail of Tears?
Andrew Jackson
What started the Mexican War?
It started as a boundary dispute (argument) over whether the Nueces river or the Rio Grande was the boundary
What is sectionalism?
Strong interests in a single region rather than the nation as a whole. (for example slavery in the south)
What is a tariff?
A tax placed on imports
What is a protective tariff?
A tax on imports that protects American made goods from being undersold by cheaper foreign-made goods. It protects American businesses and the country’s economy.
Which part of the country favored high tariffs?
The North (Since in the North they were manufacturers they liked it since it encouraged Americans to buy their products and protected them from cheap imports).
What is manufacturing?
Making things