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124 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Define Reconstruction
to rebuild the south or to reunite the nation
What is Lincoln's reconstruction plan?
10% Plan
what is the 10% percent plan?
10% of voters in each southern southern state plegde loyalty; abolish slavery; write new state constitutions and elect new reps; lenient plan
Johnson's plan for reconstruction
majority pledge loyalty; ratify 13th amendment; amnesty to ex-confeds; plantations returned to owners; write new state constitutions and elect new reps; moderate
Why was Johnson's plan for reconstruction stopped by congress?
b/c blackcodes in south
Radical reconstruction plan
south divided by 5 military headed by generals; write new state constitutions and est. new state gov't.; ratify 14th amendment; ex.confed no vote or hold office; harsh; south treated like "conquered territory"
13th amendment
abolished slavery
14th amendment
granted citizenship all people born in US and equal protection to all
15th amendment
constitutional amendment that gave african americans right to vote in each state
right to vote
impeachment of johnson
johnson not guilty of any high crimes so stayed in office but the real reason congress impeached AJ was because they didn't like him; AJ broke the tenure of office which did not allow AJ to fire
Rise and Impact of the KKK
goals: keep freedmen and white republicans out of office
impact: instilled fear and kept freedmen out of office
Define freedmen
a former slave
role of freedmen`
beginning of reconstruction: freedmen had no role in society due to black codes
middle of reconstruction:
freedmen able to vote and elected into office
end of reconstruction : had very little role due to Jim Crow laws
Plessy vs. Ferguson
Louisiana enacted law requiring separate railway cars for blacks & whites. In 1892, Plessy took a seat in a "white" car of train. He refused to move to car for blacks and was arrested. Plessy claimed violation of 14th amendment. Plessy GUILTY b/c facilities were claimed to be separate but equal.
Brown vs. Board of Education
Linda Brown not attend white school 5 blocks away but had to attend school 21 blocks away. Parents complained to court implied that Negroes were inferior and violation of 14th amendment. School said separate but equal. Brown innocent after judicial review
Election of 1876
Hayes (R) vs. Tilden (D); Hayes less popular votes more electoral; Tilden more popular votes less electoral No clear cut win so congress chose Hayes b/c Compromise to end reconstruction (privately made deal)
define scalawags
white southerners who cooperated with carpetbaggers and white republicans
northerners who headed south after civil war to make profit, enjoy land and maybe help the nation
farmer who work land owned by another person and gives them a part of the harves
to set free
Year of Industrialization
to develop industry in nation; change from mostly agriculture to manufacturing
conditions that enabled U.S. to become industrial
having resources; capital; inventive spirit; stable friendly gov't; trained workers; cheap labor - immigrants; economic managment; transportation
hands off/non-involvement; early gov't role
reasons for laissez-faire
bribary of gov't; felt that it had helped the reputation of the country; felt that they should play small role in economic affairs
What are examples of resources in US?
oil, coal, trade routes, steel, ports, raw materials (cotton)
Giants of industry?
rockefeller, carnegie, vanderbilt, morgan
What did Rockefeller make money from?
oil industry
What did carnegie make money from?
steel industry
What did vanderbilt make money from?
railroad industry
What did Morgan make money from?
What were the methods of the giants of industry?
lower prices, reduce competition, create monopolies and trusts, invest in other companies, all were philanthropist, all exploited workers and bribed gov't
Vertical Integration
When a company expands its business into areas that are at different points of the same production path.
"united we stand, divided we fall" and "power in numbers" were used by whom during the industrial revolution?
labor unions
Knights of Labor
why wasn't Knights of Labor succesful?
because they used violence and it included many groups having no common goal Also, the haymarket riot led them to be so unsuccessful
What was the yr the AFL and CIO merged?
groups that sell shares it to the public
What were advantages of Corporations?
increase capital through sale of stocks, allowed company to expand, transfer ownership, risks shared, don't need to go to bank b/c money come from people
What was the first attempt of the gov't to regulate business and labor?
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
banned formation of trusts and monpolies; too weak & not effective
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
unions legal
Wagner Act
bosses had to engage in collective barganing
Fair Labor Standards Act
est. maxium hrs and minimum wages
Social Security Act
pensions, insurances
Haymarket Riot
1886; McCormick Harvest Company; knights of labor;
Homestead Strike
1892; Steel;
Pullman Strike
1894; Railroad;
Name some of the poor working Conditions in factories
dangerous equipment, low wages, child labor, exploited minorities, poor lighting, high temp., dirty, smelly, disease spread quick, no insurance, no pension etc.
What were characteristics shared by Haymarket riot, homestead strike, pullman strike?
violence erupted, unsuccessful, strikers looked for change for the better
What were positive effects of industry on society?
gave jobs, money circulated, allowed progress, standard of living increased
What were negative effects of industry on society?
monopolies, trusts, exploited workers, broken families, pollution, corruption(gov't bribery)
Free enterprise
businesses owned by private citizens
What was an advantage of free enterprise?
people open more businesses and work harder because they can keep the profit
Was was a disadvantage of free enterprise?
because in free enterprise businesses must compete to win customers and many times big companies put an end to competiton
group of corporations run by a single board of directors
company that controls all business of an industry
Name some reasons that people left their countries (push factors)
landless, religous/political persecution, escape war, famine, poverty, diesease
Name some reasons that people came to U.S (pull factors)
opportunities, freedoms, land, education, hope, jobs
"old immigrants"
1840-1880; NW europe and China
"new immigrants"
1880-1910; SE europe and asia
Which immigrants were welcomed? (old or new) Why?
Old; same language; similar cultures; US needed pop.
Were "new" immigrants welcomed? Why/why not?
No; different cultures, languages, faced prejudice and discrimination
During the time of old immigrants what was the US policy?
open door
National origins Act 1924
favorite NW
Todays Immigrants come mostly from __________.
Asia and latin america
Today's illegal Immigrants come mostly from __________.
send back
salad bowl
theory that immigrants would keep individual characteristics of their culture yet would still be american WORKED
Melting pot
theory that immigrants would melt or combine customs with American customs NOT WORK
take in customs
What yr was the proclamation of neutrality?
Who made the proclamation of neutrality?
George Washington
What caused the Proclamation of Neutrality?
French revolution w/ britain. Both sides asked for US help. US said no b/c it was too weak.
What did the Proclamation of neutrality say?
US maintain neutrality and still trade w/ both sides.
Is proclamation of neutrality in effect today?
What yr was the farewell address?
Who made the farewell address?
George Washington
What did the farewell address say?
no favorites; no permanent allies; hones and just to all nations; work for peace
What caused the farewell address?
Keep u.s out of war
Is the farewell address still in effect today?
Since WW2 US not follow isolationism
What yr was the monroe doctrine?
What caused monroe doctrine?
Euro-countries coming together to power american continents.
What did the monroe doctrine say?
avoid euro wars, american continents free from euro power, no intefere w/ euro if they no intefere w/ americas. if euro come to Americas then america feel threaten
Is the monroe doctrine still in effect today?
Manifest destiny
calling from god to expand land up to ones border
In what yr did we get the mexican cession?
In what yr did we get lousiana purchase?
policy of powerful countries seek control of weaker countries; they get more power
Alaska (yr)
Hawaii (yr)
Guam (yr)
Puerto Rico
Roosevelt Corollary (def. + yr)
US right to intervene w/ Latin American issues;1905
What yrs was WW1?
what was the immediate cause of the WW1?
sinking of lusitania (1915)
What yr did US enter WW1?
what yr did russia leave WWi?
What was the spark of WWI?
Francis Ferdinard assasined in 1914
things done for benefit for other countries
Self interest
things done for benefit of only the country
Why did America seem hypocrtical in Spanish Amer. war?
america went to save cuba from being taken but took more land (guam, hawaii etc.)
What were two main reasons for U.S to enter WWI?
zimmerman telegraph and freedom of seas
What yrs were building of panama canal?
What yr was the virgin islands bought?
What treaty ended WW1?
treaty of versay (1919)
What were the three main underlying causes of WW1?
Militarism, imperialism, and nationalism
program for building strong military (competition)
people want to be indep. and live under 1 flag
Who was president of US during WW1?
woodrow wilson
What was the zimmerman telegraph?
Germany ask Mexico to support against US. in return Germany give Mexico land taken by US.
What was referred to as the "big ditch"
the panama canal
what was the immediate cause of the Spa. Amer. War?
DeLome's letter
When was spansih american war?
Why did US buy Virgin Islands?
WW1 in progress so US wanted to protect panama canal
What was spark of Span. Amer. War?
sinking of maine
Fourteen points
wilson's plan to prevent international problems from causing another war.
Who was president during panama canal?
teddy roosevelt
what were two advantages for US b/c of panama canal?
defense/navy, connect oceans/trade