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73 Cards in this Set

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Feudalism
rule by lords who owe loyalty to a monarch.
Printing Press
The printing press was invented by a german printer named, Johannes Gutenberg. Before this invention there were only a few books because people hand wrote each one. The printing press allowed more books to be made so as a result more people learned how to read.
More people became educated.
Island
land area that is surrounded by water
Straight
narrow channel that connects two larger bodies of water.
Lake
body of water surrounded entirely by land.
Volcaneo
cone shapped mountain formed by an outpouring of lava- hot, liquid rock- from a crack in the earths surface.
Hill
area of raised land that is lower and more rounder than a mountain.
Cape
narrow point of land that extends into a body of water.
Gulf
arm of an ocean or sea that is partly enclosed by land, usually larger than a bay.
Plain
broad are of fairly level land that is generally close to sea level.
River
large stream of water that empties into an ocean or lake or another river.

source of a river- where river begins

tributary- stream or small river that flows into a larger stream or river.

delta- land area formed by soil that is deposited at the mouth of a river.

mouth of a river- place where a river or stream empties into a larger body of water.
Canyon
deap narrow valley with high steep sides.
Plateau
large area if high flat ir gently rolling land.
Valley
land that lies bewteen hills or moutains
Mountain
high steep rugged land that rises sharply above the surrounding land.

Mountain Range- chain of connected mountains
Isthmus
narrow stip of land joining two large land areas or joining a peninsula to a mainland.
Peninsula
piece of land that is surrounded by water on three sides.
Longitude
Run north and south. Measures distances east and west of the Prime Meridian.The Prime Meridian lies at O degrees longitude and runs through Royal Observatory in Greenwich, England. Labled from 1 degree-179 degrees.
Latitude
runs east to west. measures distances north and south of the equator. The equator lies at 0 degrees latitude. the equator divides the Earth into the Northern and Southern hemispheres.
The Great Plains
Part of the interior plains. The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains. Covers: New Mexico, Texas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Montana, South Dakota and North Dakota and the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan.
Christian Missionaries
religious settlements run by Catholic priests. Europeans in the Americas believed that they should convery Indians to Christianaty. They forced Indians to live and work on the missions.
Roger Williams
Minster in Salem. Felt that the chuch and government should be seprate. Religious Freedom. Found Rhode Island and offered religious freedome there.
Anne Hutchison
A devout Puriatn woman who expressed her own view of the church and bible. Exiled from Massachusetts. Became a symbol of religious freedom.
Slave Trade
In Africa slavery was a big part of the economic system. Most slaves were captured in war. Some African traders transported and sold slaves as laborers. Portuguese began trading with communities along the African Coast and started buying as many as 2,500 slaves a year. Spains empire in the Americas was building and they began using Indians to work for them in mines and plantations. Indians began dying from diseases and mistreatment. Bartolome de Las Casas suggested that Africans be brought there -> they would not catch European diseases and they were used to working.
Ecomomy of the New England Colonies
(Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Rhode Island.)
New England had rocky soild which made it difficult for farmers. Although the soil was poor the forests were full of riches. Settlers hunted wild turkey and deer, as well as hogs that they let roam free in the woods. In the spring they collected sap from sugar maple trees. Settlers also cut down trees and floated them to sawmills near ports such as
Boston or Portsmouth(New Hampshire). These cities became major shipbuilding centers. Some other colonists fished for cod and halibut. Shellfish, Oysters and Lobsters were also fished for. In the 1600s New Englanders began to hunt whales. Whales provided oil for lamps, ivory and other products.
Economy of the Middle Colonies
(New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey.)
On such promising land farmers were able produce surpluses of wheat, barley and rye. These were major cash crops. They became known as the "Breadbasket Colonies" because they exported so much grain. Farmers of the Middle Colonies also raised herds of cattle and pigs. Every year they sent tons of beef, pork, and butter to the ports of NY and Philadlephia. From there the goods went by ship to New England and the South or to the West Indies, England and to other parts of Europe. Skilled German craftsworkers set up a shop in PA. In time the colony became a center of manufacturing and crafts.
Economy of the Southern Colonies
(Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia.)
The Southern Colonies enjoyed warmer weather and a longer growing season than the colonies of the north. VA, MD and parts of NC all became tobacco-growing areas. Settlers in SC and GA raised rice and indigo. Colonists found out that it was more profitable to raise tobacco on plantations. A plantation is a large estate farmed by many workers. 20-100 slaves did most of the work. Most of them worked in the fields and some were skilled workers such as carpenters, barrel makers or blacksmiths. The eairlest plantations were located along rivers and creeks of coastal plains. Because the land was washed by ocean tides, the region was known as Tidewater.

The backcountry South:
West of the Tidewater was the backcountry. Rolling hills and thick forests covered the land. The backcountry was more democratic, everyone was treated equal.
Mercantilism
economic theory that a nation's strength came from builiding up its gold supplies and expanding its trade.

European nations believed that colonies exisited for the benifit of the mother country.
Navigaiton Acts
In the 1650s the English Parliament passed a series of Navigation Acts that regulated trade between England and its colonies. 1. The purpose of this law was to ensure that only England benefited from the colonial trade. 2. The Navigation Acts also listed certain products that colonial merchants could ship only to England. The Navigation Acts helped the colonies as well as England because the law encouraged colonists to build their own ships. As a result New England became a prosperous shipbuilding center. Colonial merchants did not have to compete with foregin nations because they were sure of having a market for their goods in England. Some colonists resented it because the laws favored merchants.
Cash Crops
a crop sold for money at a market.
Proclamation of 1763
Pontiac's War convinced British officials that they should stop colonists from settling on the western frontier. The government then issued the Proclamation of 1763 which drew an imaginary line along the crest of the Appalachian Mountains. Colonists were forbidden to settle west of the line. All settlers west of the line were to move back. To enforce the law Britain sent 10,000 troops to the colonies.
British Parliment
The rights won by nobels were extended to other English people. The Great Council grew into a representative assembly called Parliment. By the 1600s, Parliament was divided into the House of Lords, made up of nobles and an elected House of Commons.
Stamp Act
The French and Indian War had plunged Britian deeply into dept. In 1765 George Grenville asked Parliment to pass the Stamp Act. This act put a tax on legal documents such as wills, diplomas, and marriage papers. It also taxed newspapers, almanacs, playing cards and even dice. All items named in the law had to carry a stamp showing that the tax had been paid.
Boston Massacre
On March 5, 1770, a crowd gathered outside the Boston customs house. Colonists made fun of redcoated British "Lobster Backs" guarding the builiding. The colonists then began to throw objects such as snowballs, oyster shells and chunks of ice at the soilders. The crowd grew larger and more rowdier. The soldiers panicked so they fired into the crowd. Colonists protested the incident which they called the Boston Massacre. The soilders were arrested and tired in court.
Intolerable Acts
British was outraged about the Boston Tea Party. They agreed that they had to punish Massachusetts. They passed four laws which colonists called the Intolerable Acts because they were so harsh.
1. Parliment shut down the port of Boston. No ship could enter or leave the harbor. The port would remain closed until the colonists paid for the tea.
2. Parliment forbade Massachusetts colonists to hold town meetings more than once a year without the governments permission.
3. Parliment provided for customs officers and other officials charged with major crimes to be tried in Britian instead of MA.
4. Parliment passed a new Quartering Act which stated redcoats would no longer camp in tents. Instead they would live in citizens homes.
The First Continental Congress
In September 1774, colonial leaders called for a meeting in Philadelphia. Delegates from 12 colonies gatherd in what became the First Continental Congress. Georgia was the only colony that did not send delegates. They decided to back Massachusetts. They agreed to boycott all British goods and to stop exporting goods to Britian until the Intolerable acts were repealed. The delegates also urged each colony to set up and train their own milita (an army of citizens who serve as soilders during an emergency).
The Sons/Daughters of Libety
In order to protest the British some colonists formed the Sons of Liberty. They staged mock hangings of cloth or straw effigies dressed like British officals. The hangings were meant to show tax collecters what might happen if they tried to collect the unpopular taxes.

Some women joined the Daughters of Liberty. They paraded, signed petitions, and organized a boycott of fine British cloth. They urgerd colonial women to raise more sheep, prepare more wool and spin and weave their own cloth.
The Declaration of Independence
In late June Jefferson completed the declaration and it was ready to be approved by Congress. On July 2nd, Congress voted that the 13 colonis were free and independent states. On July 4, 1776, the delegates accepted the Declaration. John Hancock was the first to sign it. Included the preamble(introduction), Natural Rights(rights that belong to all people from birth), British Wrongs(wrongs committed by the British) and Independence(states that the colonies had now become the United States of America.)
Natural Rights
Rights that belong to all people from birth.
Importance of the Battle of Saratoga
At the end of the battle of Saratoga, the Americans had a victory. This was a major turning point in the war because it ended the British threat to New England. It boosted American spirits at a time when Washington's army was suffering defeats. Most important, it convinced France to become an ally of the US. France then gave millitary and naval support.
Importance of the Battle of Yorktown
American and French troops sieged (the act of surrounding an enemy position in an attempt to capture it). Cornwallis(British) decided the situation was hopless because of little supplies left so the British then surrenderd on October 19, 1781.
Loyalists
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain. Also called Tories. They made up about 20% of the colonists. They included wealthy merchants and former officals of the royal government. More Loyalists in the Middle States. During the American Revolution they fled to Canada or back to England. If they fled they would loose their homes, shops and farms.
Patriots
The rebels of Britain. Most of the American colonists were Patriots.
Important points of the Treaty of Paris (1783)
The treaty showed the British that the United States was now an indpendent country.
Articles of Confederation
The Articles of Confederation was the first constution of the United States. It created confederation (alliance of independent states). States sent delegates to a Confederation Congress. Each state had only one vote in congress. Congress could declare war, appoint military officers, foregin affiars, and coin money. The articles limited the power of the congress and preserved it for the states. If Congress passed a law at least 9 of the 13 states had to approve it. Congress couldn't regulate trade between states nor states and foreign nations. It could not pass tax laws. If Congress needed money they had to ask the states for it. The states were not forced to give money. There was also no executive and there was no court system. There ws no standing army.
The importance of the Northwest Ordiance of 1787
It set up a government for the Northwest territory. It guaranteed basic rights to settlers and outlawed slavery. It even provided for the vast region to be divided into seperate territories in the future. The Northwest Oridance provided a way to admit new states to the nation. It gauranteed that new states would be treated the same as the original 13 states. The states of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin were created from the Northwest Ordiance.
The Constitutional Convention of 1787
On May 25,1787 the Constitutional Convention opened in Philadelphia. Every state except Rhode Island sent representatives. Their mission was to revise the Articles.

The Virgina Plan- (Randolph & Madison) called for legislative,executive and judicial branches. The legis. branch would have 2 houses. Seats would be given based on population.

New Jersey Plan- (Patterson) 3 branches of government. legis. one house. One vote per State.

The Great Compromise-(Sherman)2 houses (lower and upper) The lower house also known as the House of Representatives, would be elected by popular vote. Seats would be awarded to each state according to population. The upper house or the Senate, would be chosen by state legislatures. Each state would have 2 senators.

3/5 Compromise- three-fifths of the slaves in a state would be counted as part of the population.

Federalisim- split the power between the states and the national government. The government was based on the Iroquoi Confedercy.

Checks and Balances- each branch of government would be able to check or control the other 2.

Seperation of powers- 3 branches: Legislature, Executive and Judicial.
The system of Checks and Balances
Executive:
Checks on the Legislative Branch-
Can propose laws
Can veto laws
Can call special sessions of
Congress
Makes appointments
Negotiates foreign treaties
Checks on the Judicial Branch:
Appoints federal judges
Can grant pardons to federal
offenders.

Legislative:
Checks on the Executive Branch-
Can override Presidents veto
Confirms executive
appointments
Ratifies treaties
Can declare war
Appropriates money
Can impeach and remove
President
Checks on the Judicial Branch-
Creates lower federal courts
can impeach & remove judges
Can propose amendments to
overrule judicial desicions
Approves appointments of
federal judges

Judicial Branch:
Checks on the Executive Branch-
Can delcare executive actions
unconstitutional
Checks on the Legislative Branch-
Can delcare acts of Congress
unconstitutional
Legislative Branch
The legislative branch is the Congress. Its main function is to make laws. Congress= The Senate(6 year terms) and The House of Representatives(4 year terms). Both are elected by voters in each state.
Executive Branch
Headed by the President. This branch also includes the Vice
President and any advisers appointed by the President. Both the President and Vice are elected for 4 year terms (by elctoral colleges). They are responsible for carrying out laws passed by Congress. The Presidnet is also comander in chief of the armed foces.
Judicial Branch
The Supreme Court and the other federal courts hear cases that involve the Constitution or any laws passed by Congress. They also hear cases arising from disputes between two or more states.
The Bill of Rights (Amendments 1-10)
The Bill of Rights is a list of freedoms that the government promises to protect.

1. Freedom of Religion, Speech, Press, Assembly and Petition.
2. Right to Bear Arms (to keep weapons.)
3. No housing of troops in private homes.
4. Protection against illegal search and seizure.
5. Rights of the accused.
6.Right to Trial by Jury.
7. Jury trial in Civil cases
8. No cruel or unusual punishment.
9. Powers reseved to the people
10. power reserved to the states.
Constitution
Document that sets out the laws and principles of a government. Consists of Preamble, Article 1(Legislative Branch), Article 2 (Executive Branch), Article 3(Judicial Branch), Article 4 (Relations among the states), Article 5( Amending the Constitution), Article 6 (National Supremacy) and Article 7(Ratification).
Democracy
Democracy is a government run by the people.
Precedents set by George Washington
A precedent is an act or decision that sets an example for others to follow.

Precedents set by G.W.:
1. 2 terms for US president
2. Put down the Whiskey Rebels
3. He stayed netrual in the European affiars.
4. urged Americans to stay netrual and told them to beware of divisions between the north and south.
5.he carefully chose leaders to serve in his Cabinet.
Presidental Cabinet
In 1789, the first Congress created 5 executive departments. They were the departments of State, Treasury, and War and the offices of Attorney Genreal and Postmaster General. The heads of these departments made up the Presidents cabniet. Members of the Cabniet gave the president advice and directed their departments.
Judicial Review
The power to decide whether or not acts of a President or laws passed by Congress are unconstitutional.
Marbury v. Madison
William Marbury was a judge appointed by John Adams on his last night of presidency. Jefferson then orderd James Madison not to deliver the offical papers confirming the appointment. Marbury then sued Madison. This case was then tried before the Supreme Court. the Court ruled against Marbury.
The importance of the cotton gin and how it affected the institution of slavery
The Industrial Revolution greatly increased the demand for southern cotton. Southern farmers were able to grow cotton without a problem, however it was a very slow process. Planters needed a new way to make cotton. In 1793 Eli Whitney came up with a new machine. It was called the Cotton Gin. When the cotton was swept between the rollers, the teeth seperated the seeds from the fibers. Planters could now grow cotton a lot faster. This machine led to a cotton boom. As the cotton kingdom began to grow so did slavery. Even though cotton could now be cleaned by machine, it still needed to be planted and picked by hand.
Monroe Doctrine
The United States would not let Europe colonize in the western hemisphere
Trail of Tears
The US Government forced Indians to leave their homes at gunpoint to march hundreds of miles without food or shelter. 1/4 of the indian population died due to removal.
Tariff
a tax on foregin goods brought into a country.
Manifest Destiny
Manifest Destiny is a belief popular in the early 1800s that the United States should spread from ocean to ocean. The US accomplished this by 1848.

1. Louisianna Purchase(1803)-the US doubled its size by buying the Louisianna Territory from the French.
2. Adams-Onis Treaty(1819): The US signed a treaty with Spain to buy Florida.
3. Annexation of Texas(1845)-annex(to add on).
4. Mexican Cession (1848)- Mexico loses the Mexican War and loses Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Colorado, Utah and Southern Cali.
5.Oregon Territory (1846)- The US and Britian compromise. Everything north of the 49th parrel line (Canada) goes to the British and everything south to the US.
Sectionalisim
loyalty to a state or section rather than to the whole country.
Missouri Compromise
When Missouri asked to join the union a crisis erupted. There were 11 free states and 11 slave states. If Missouri joined the United States it would give the South majorty in the Senate. Northeners were determind not to lose power so they opposed letting Missouri become a state. Senator Henry Clay came up with a plan. Maine (a free state) was also asking to become a state so he suggested admitting both Missouri and Maine so you would still have an even of both.
Compromise of 1850
The Compromise of 1850 had 5 parts.
1) It allowed California to enter the Union as a free state.
2) It divided the rest of the Mexican Cession into territories of New Mexico and Utah.
3) Ended the slave trade in Washington DC.
4) Strict fugitive slave law.
5) Settled a border dispute between Texas and New Mexico.
Kansas-Nebraska Act
Americans hoped that the Compromise of 1850 would end the debate over slavery in the west. In 1854 however, the issue surfaced again. Senator Stephen Douglas introduced a bill that would set up a government for the Nebraska Territory. This Territory streched from Texas north to Canada and from Missouri west to the Rockies. He knew that the southeners did not want to add another free state to the Union. He proposed that the Nebraska Territory be divided into two territories, Kansas and Nebraska. The settlers living in each territory would decide the issue of slavery by popular sovereignty.
John Brown
John Brown was an abolitionist who decided to strike back when some proslavery men attacked the town of Lawrence, an antislavery city. Brown moved to Kanas to help make it a free state. He clamied that God had sent him to punish supporters of slavery. Brown rode with his 4 sons and 2 other men into the town of Pottawatomie Creek. In the middle of the Night they dragged 5 proslavery settlers from their bed and murderd them. That led to more violence and by late 1856 more than 200 people had been killed.
Dred Scott Decision
The Dred Scott Decision meant that slavery was legal in all the territories. This was just what the white southerners had been demanding for.
Abolitionist
person who wants to end slavery.
Transcontinental Railroad
a railroad that streches across the whole continent from coast to coast.
Steel Plow
In 1837 John Deere designed the first steel plow which helped farmers a lot. It made it eaiser to cultivate the rich soil. Animals would hitch the plow while the farmers held onto the handles to guide it.
How did European Colonization affect the lives of Native Americans?
As more Europeans came to America they started moving more inland pushing the Natives from their homes.