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42 Cards in this Set

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(Chapter 2)
Where did the first Americans come from, and how did they get to North America?
They came from Asia by crossing a land bridge.
What made them cross the land bridge? (what were they following?)
Animal Herds
The thing they were following was important to their survival.
(Chapter 2) What made them cross the land bridge? (what were they following?)
Animal Herds
The thing they were following was important to their survival.
(Chapter 2) Define Artifacts
Things left behind by early people.
Think of what time period they came from.
(Chapter 2)
Define Archaeology
The study of evidence left by early people in order to find out about their way of life.
(Chapter 2)
How do archaeologists learn about the past?
By studying artifiacts
(Chapter 2)
Mound Builders - who were they and what was the purpose of the mounds they built?
The Mound Builders were people who built earthen mounds. The mounds were used as burial chambers and for religious ceremonies.
(Chapter 2)
Describe the location, way of life, and achievements of the great basin natives.
Location: Intermountain
Way of life: Simple, land offered little for them
Achievements: Made baskets, built shelters
think of the type of land they lived on
(Chapter 2)
Descrive the location, way of life, and the acievements of the plateau natives.
Location: Between the Rocky Mountains and Cascades
Way of Life: set up lodges and earth homes
Achievements: Built homes out of cottonwood frames.
(Chapter 2) Describe the Location, Way of life, and acievements of the California natives
Location: W. COast
Way of life: Hunted deer, fished
Achievements: Made baskets.
(Chapter 2)
Describe the people of the Southwest
(pg. 41 in your textbook)
Pueblos built houses out of adobe. They also had a kiva which was an underground chamber for religious ceremonials. Family lines were traced though the women.
(Chapter 2)
Name 2 native tribes that reached the Southwest.
1) Navajos
2) Apaches
(Chapter 2)
Name the location, farming, hunting, and housing of the great plains natives.
Location: Great Plains
Farming: Corn, Beans, Squash
Hunting: Deer
Housing: Tepees
(Chapter 2)
Why did the Great plains people use tepees as shelter?
Because tepees were easy to carry around and that was important because the great plains natives moved around a lot on horses. they were nomads
(Chapter 2) Describe the Location, Way of life, and accomplishments of the Mayans
Location: South Mexico to Guatemala
Way of life: Grew corn, cleared the jungle
Accomplishments: Invented hieroglyphics, built stone structures, invented 365 day calender.
(Chapter 2) Describe the Location, Way of life, and accomplishments of the Aztecs.
Location: Central Mexico
Way of Life: Farmers grew crops, prospered though trade, conquered many cities
Accomplishments: Learned to farm on swampy land, chinampas (floating gardens) Canoes/drawbridges
(Chapter 2) Describe the Location, Way of life, and accomplishments of the Incas
Location: Western Coast of South America
Way of Life: had runners to carry commands, sucess in farming and engineering,
Accomplishments: Huge stone temples and forts, expert engineers, performed sucessful brain surgery, discovered medicines
(Chapter 2)
Describe the Iroquois
5 tribes existed in the NY area, they joined together to make the League of the Iroquois. The women selected leaders (sachems) who decided laws.
(Chapter 2)
Name some items that were exchanged though the columbian exchange.
Introduced to the Americas:
* Melons
* Peaches
* Oranges
* Diseases
Introduced to Europe:

* Corn
* Chocolate
* Tomatoes
(Chapter 2)
What impact did the Columbian Exchange have on the Natives?
It had a BAD impact on the Natives because the natives got diseases which made them much weaker and killed off many of them whereas the Europeans were used to the dieseases and just got the good stuff... the food and hunting/trapping techniques.
(Chapter 3)
What was life like in the Middle Ages?
Daily life was hard, many people had to produce everything for themselves. THey knew little of the world around them.
(Chapter 3)
How did the crusades impact exploration?
Many Europeans traveled outside the place they were familiar with and theysaw many new things which made them want to explore the world around them.
(Chapter 3)
Explain the importance of Prince Henry
Prince Henry helped the portugueese design a new kind of ship, the caravel, which allowed sailors to sail against the wind.
(Chapter 3)
Explain Christopher Comlumbus' effect on Native Americans.
Christopher COlombus' effect on the Native Americans was that they were forced from their homeland/freedom becoming slaves. Many of them died due to the European diseases he brought over with him.
(Chapter 3)
Describe the Accomplishment/Area explored by Vasco Nunez de Balboa
He explored the Isthmus of Panama. Claimed the Pacific Ocean for Spain.
(Chapter 3)
Describe the Accomplishment/Area explored by Ferdinand Magellan
He explored the Pacific Ocean and was credited for being the 1st person to sail around the world.
(Chapter 3)
Who was Cortez?
Cortez was a Spanish Conquistador who conquered the Aztecs. MOntezuma thought that he was a messanger from the gods therefore the welcomed the guests. 600 soldiers/horses conquered Tenochtilon
(Chapter 3)
Who was Pizarro?
Pizarro was a spanish conquistador who conquered the Incas. He had 200 Spanish Soldiers. He captured Atahualpa (the Incan Emporer at the time) and without its leader, the Incan Empire fell.
(Chapter 3)
List some reasons for the Spanish Victories over the Natives
Spanish had...

*better weapons
*better techniques
*they lookes like gods
(Chapter 3) Las Casas Seeks Reform.

How did Las Casas help one group of people while condemnimg the other?
Las Casas helped the Natives by fighting for their rights. He didnt help the Africans... because he made them slaves.
(Chapter 3)
Define the Middle Passages
The trip that african slaves went on to get to the New World where they would be forced into slavery.
(Chapter 3)
Define the Northwest Passage
Waterway though or around North America.
(Chapter 3)
Describe the major religious refom movement that divided Christians in a once unified western Europe.
The Protestant Reformation divided Europe. THis was when the newly formed Protestants broke away from the Catholic Church, forming many different Protestant churches.
(Chapter 3)
Name the Location, Relationship with natives, and Economy of New France
Location: Canada, right by the Great Lakes
Economy: Trapping, HUnting, Fishing.
Relationship with Natives: Good, were friends with the Algonquins
(Chapter 3)
Name the Location, Relationship with natives, and Economy of New Netherlands
Location: Present day NYC
Economy: Furs
Relationship with Natives: Good, friends with the Iroquois
(Chapter 3)
Describe Plymouth
Plymouth is located in Cape Cod, Massachusetts. The colony's motive for leaving home was for religious freedom and wealth. The hardships they faces were poor living conditions, disease, and storms at sea. The Native Americans saved them by teaching them how to grow food/animals. Their laws were stated in the Mayflower Contract.
(Chapter 3)
Describe Jamestown
Jamestown is Located in Virginia. The Reason the people moved there was for gold. The fardships they faced were that their colony was built on swamp land, which made it difficult for them to farm. Captain John Smith saved them, and so did the Native Americans.
their laws/government were the house of burgess.
(Chapter 3)
Describe New Spain.
New Spain started in the 1500s in Central America (mexico, peru) They got money from plantations were natives were slaves and from gold/silver mines. the treatment of the natives was not good... the natives labored for them. this colony was organized in 3 different sections:
the pueblo, the prestidos, and the missions. the pueblos were towns, the prestidos were fors with adobe walls which made the farmers feel safe, and the missions were people who tried to convert natives to christianity.
(Chapter 3)
Describe New France
New France started in the 1600s in Canada (Port Royal, nova scotia) THey got their money by trapping, trading with the natives, and fishing. THeir treatment of the natives was good... they traded with them. and had an interrelationship with them because the natives taught them better ways to trap and hunt and fish. THe colony was organized like so: Most of the people were trappers and traders, they lived in the woods (coureurs de bois) THey tracked a lot which made it hard for the king to keep track of them.
(Chapter 3) Describe the Pueblos
THe Pueblos were towns in new spain.
(Chapter 3) Describe the Prestidos
The Prestidos were forts in New SPain with adobe walls, which helped make the farmers feel safe and were built for the safety of the people.
(Chapter 3) Describe the Missions
Missions were people who converted Natives to Christianity. they were part of the way New Spain was organized.