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64 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
powerful organization linked to political parties that controlled local governments
Political machine
contractors padded the amount they billed the city and "kicked back" a percentage of that amount to political bosses
kickback
"spoils system", rewarded political supporters with jobs or favors
patronage
combinations of companies
trusts
journalists who brought problems in society to the public's attention
muckraker
allows state voters to choose their party's candidates
primary (election)
allows citizens to place an issue on the ballot in a state election
initiative
gives voters the opportunity to accept or reject measures that the state legislature enacted
referendum
enables voters to remove unsatisfactory elected officials from their jobs
recall
men or women who fought for woman suffrage, women's right to vote
suffragists
the passing of laws to prohibit the making or selling of alcohol
prohibition
breaks up trusts; Teddy Roosevelt's nickname
trustbuster
settling disputes by agreeing to accept the decision of an impartial outsider
arbitration
fair and equal treatment for all; Teddy Roosevelt's campaign promise
square deal
let people do as they choose; attitude toward big business since Thomas Jefferson's time
laissez-faire
protection and preservation of natural resources
conservation
literally "recognizing a difference," it has come to mean "unequal treatment"
discrimination
established Civil Service Commission to end spoils system
Pendleton Act (1883)
first federal law to control trusts and monopolies
Sherman Anti-trust Act (1890)
created Interstate Commerce Commission, required railroads to charge "reasonable and Just" rates and publish them
Interstate Commerce Act (1887)
passed after The Jungle was published
Meat Inspection Act (1906)
required accurate labels
Pure Food and Drug Act (1906)
regulated banking
Federal Reserve Act (1913)
investigated unfair trade practices
Federal Trade Commission (1914)
restricted Japanese immigration
Gentleman's Agreement (1907)
gave black men the right to vote regardless of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude"
Amendment 15
gave the Federal government the right to collect income tax, and not share it with the states
Amendment 16
Senators to be elected by popular vote, two from each State, for 6 year term
Amendment 17
Prohibition: do not make, sell, buy, transport, import, or export "intoxicating liquors"
Amendment 18
gave women the right to vote
Amendment 19
suffragist, educator, newspaper editor; led National American Woman Suffrage Association
Carrie Chapman Catt
Quaker, militant suffragist; founded National Women's Party; fought for economic and legal equality for women as well as suffrage
Alice Paul
President, 1913-1921; progressive reformer; initially did not support woman suffrage
Woodrow Wilson
turned Woman's Christian Temperance Union into a powerfor organization
Frances Willard
temperance crusader
Carry Nation
suffragist; first woman to serve in Congress
Jeanette Rankin
President, 1897-1901; favored big business
William McKinley
President, 1901-09; wanted to prove federal government had authority over big business
Theodore Roosevelt
President, 1909-1913; not as popular as Roosevelt, but carried out his reform policies
William Howard Taft
founded Tuskegee Institute, National Negro Business League, encouraged African Americans to work slowly, patiently, peacefully, for quality
Booker T. Washington
outspoken supporter of back-to-Africa movement
Marcus Garvey
journalist; urged African Americans to speak out for their civil rights
Ida B. Wells
educator; urged African Americans fight for their civil rights
W.E.B. Du Bois
chemist; helped improve economy of the south
George Washington Carver
first American woman to serve as bank president
Maggie Lena
one of the founders of the Society of American Indians
Dr. Carlos Montezuma
newspaper reporter, wrote How the Other Half Lives, describing urban life
Jacob Riis
political cartoonist who criticized Boss Tweed
Thomas Nast
President, 1877-81; wanted to end spoils system by reforming civil service
Rutherford B. Hayes
President, 1881; wanted to reform civil service but was assassinated
James Garfield
President, 1881-85; tried to end spoils system
Chester A. Arthur
President 1885-89, 1893-97; supported lower tariffs
Grover Cleveland
helped found American Socialist Party, 1898
Eugene V. Debs
one of the most effective muckrakers
Lincoln Steffens
muckraker; revealed the unfair practices of the oil trust
Ida Tarbell
wrote The Jungle, describing horrible conditions in Chicago's meatpacking plants
Upton Sinclair
Wisconsin's governor and senator; reform state's electoral system by introducing primaries
Robert La Follette
national reform leader; educated the poor about health care
Lillian D. Wald
suffragist; established Hull House, a settlement house, in Chicago
Jane Addams
Italian nun who came to the United States to work with the poor
Mother Cabrini
suffragist, civil rights worker, co-founded NAACP
Mary Church Terrell
suffragist, co-founder of National Woman Suffrage Association
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
suffragist, co-founder of National Woman Suffrage Association
Susan B. Anthony
suffragist, minister, doctor; led National American Woman Suffrage Association
Anna Howard Shaw