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85 Cards in this Set

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Most states established two-house, or _____, legislatures to divide the power even further.
bicameral
A plan of government.
constitution
A government in which citizens rule through elected representatives.
republic
After much debate he Congress adopted the commiee's plan, the ______, in November 1777.
Articles of Confederation
What was America's first constitution?
Articles of Confederation
What did the states form that was a firm league of friendship in which each state retained its sovereignty freedom and independence?
Articles of Confederation
A formal request.
Petition
A law or regulation.
Ordinanace
The Northwes Ordinance, passed in 1787, created a single _________ out f the lands noth of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River.
Northwest Territory
To fall in value
depreciate
In 1781, faced with a total collapse of the country's finances, Congress created a department of finance under Philadelphia merchant _______
Robert Morris
The British were keeping American merchants out of the West Indiesand other profitable British markets. In 1785 who did Congress send to London to discuss these diffcultities.
John Addams
A period when economic activity slowed and unemployment increased.
depression
American farmers suffered because they could not sell their goods. The farmers in Massachusetts were especially mad. They wanted the government to issue aper money and make new policies to relieve debtors. In 1786 angry farmmers lashed out. It was led by who? and what was it known as?
It was led by Daniel Shay
And It was know as Shay's Rebellion
The freeing of some enslaved persons
Manumission
Two Americans active in the movement for change were ____, a Virgina planter, and _____, a New York lawyer. In September 1786, Hamilton proposed callin a convention in Philadelphoa to discuss trade issues.
James Madison-Virginia planter
Alexander Hamilton- New York lawyer
Edmund Randolph proposed that the delegates create a strong national government instead of revising the Articles of Confederation. He introduced the _________ which was largely the work of James Madison. What was this plan?
The Virgina Plan
What was the Virgina plan?
The plan called for a two-ouse legislature, a chief executive chosen by the legislature, and a court system. The members of the lower house of the legislature would be elected by the people. The members of the upper house would be chosen by the lower house.
To be the same as or corresponding to
Proportional
Delegates unhappy with the Virginia Plan rallied around _____ of New Jersey. On June 15 he presented an alternative plan tat revised the Articles of Confederation, which was all the convention was empowered to do. Who was that man?
William Paterson
What did the New Jersey Plan do?
The New Jersey Plan kept the Confederation's one-house legislature, wih one vote for each state. Congress, however, could set taxes and regulate trade--powers it did not have under the Articles. Congress would elect a weak executive branch consisting of more than one person
Who suggested what came to be know as the Great Compromise?
Roger Sherman
A _________ is an agreement between two or more sides in which each side gives p some of what it wants.
Compromise
What did the Great Compromise say?
The Great Compromise said that it would be a two-house legislature. In the lower house-- the House of Representative--the number of seats for each state would vary according to the state's popuation. In the upper house--the Senate--each state would have two members.
After the Great Compromise another major problem occured with the enslaved people. What did they decide to do and what does it do?
The committee's solution was known by the Three-Fifths Compromise. The Three-Fifths Compromise was o count each enslaved person as three-fifths of a free person for both taxation and representation.
The _______ was a movement of the 1700s that promoted knowledge, reason, and science as the means to improve society.
Enlightenment
James Madison and other architects of the Constitution were familiar with the work of ____ and _____, two important philosophers.
John Locke and Baron de Montesquieu
John Locke, an English philosopher, believed that all people have ______. These ___________ include the rights to life, liberty, and property.
Natural Rights
The sharing power between the federal and state governmetns, is one of the distinctive features of the United States government.
Federalism
The first three ________ or parts of th Constitution describe the powers and responsibilities of each branch.
Articles
Two Americans active in the movement for change were ____, a Virgina planter, and _____, a New York lawyer. In September 1786, Hamilton proposed callin a convention in Philadelphoa to discuss trade issues.
James Madison-Virginia planter
Alexander Hamilton- New York lawyer
Edmund Randolph proposed that the delegates create a strong national government instead of revising the Articles of Confederation. He introduced the _________ which was largely the work of James Madison. What was this plan?
The Virgina Plan
What was the Virgina plan?
The plan called for a two-ouse legislature, a chief executive chosen by the legislature, and a court system. The members of the lower house of the legislature would be elected by the people. The members of the upper house would be chosen by the lower house.
To be the same as or corresponding to
Proportional
Delegates unhappy with the Virginia Plan rallied around _____ of New Jersey. On June 15 he presented an alternative plan tat revised the Articles of Confederation, which was all the convention was empowered to do. Who was that man?
William Paterson
What did the New Jersey Plan do?
The New Jersey Plan kept the Confederation's one-house legislature, wih one vote for each state. Congress, however, could set taxes and regulate trade--powers it did not have under the Articles. Congress would elect a weak executive branch consisting of more than one person
Who suggested what came to be know as the Great Compromise?
Roger Sherman
A _________ is an agreement between two or more sides in which each side gives p some of what it wants.
Compromise
What did the Great Compromise say?
The Great Compromise said that it would be a two-house legislature. In the lower house-- the House of Representative--the number of seats for each state would vary according to the state's popuation. In the upper house--the Senate--each state would have two members.
After the Great Compromise another major problem occured with the enslaved people. What did they decide to do and what does it do?
The committee's solution was known by the Three-Fifths Compromise. The Three-Fifths Compromise was o count each enslaved person as three-fifths of a free person for both taxation and representation.
The _______ was a movement of the 1700s that promoted knowledge, reason, and science as the means to improve society.
Enlightenment
James Madison and other architects of the Constitution were familiar with the work of ____ and _____, two important philosophers.
John Locke and Baron de Montesquieu
John Locke, an English philosopher, believed that all people have ______. These ___________ include the rights to life, liberty, and property.
Natural Rights
The sharing power between the federal and state governmetns, is one of the distinctive features of the United States government.
Federalism
The first three ________ or parts of th Constitution describe the powers and responsibilities of each branch.
Articles
What are are the three branches?
Legislative, Executive, and Judicial
What is the lawmaking branch of the government?
Legislative Branch
Which branch is headed by the president to carry out the nation's laws and policies? The president serves as commander in chief of the armed forces and conducts relations with foreign countries.
Executive Branch
the president and a vice president are elected by a special group called the _________
Electoral College. The Electoral College is made up of presidential electors.
Which Branch is the court system, of the United States?
Judicial Branch. The nation's judicial power resides in "one supreme Court" and any ther lower federal courts that Congress might establish.
To keep any one branch from gaining too much power, the Framers built in a system of ______.
Checks and Balances
Wha is the biggest check and ballance the president can have over congress?
the president can veto a law
What is the biggest check and balance congress has over the president?
Congress can impeach the president. Then if convicted the president will be thrown out.
Before the Constitution could go into effect, nine states needed to ______, or approve it.
Ratify
Supporters of the new Constitution were called ________.
Federalists
Individuals who opposed ratification of the Constitution?
Antifederalists
An ______ is something added to a document.
Admendment
The _____ or introduction, to the Constitution reflexcts the basic principle of American government--the right of the people to govern themselves. It also lists six goals for the United States government.
Preamble
Maintaining eace within the nation.
Domestic Tranquility
Political theory that government is subject to the will of the people.
Popular Sovereignty
Favoring a republic, or representatve democracy, as the best form of government.
Republicanism
The system, in which the power to govern is shared between the national governmetn and the states, is called the federal system, or ________.
Federalism
Powers belonging only to the federal government.
Enumerated Powers
Power retained by the states.
Reserved Powers
Powers shared by the states and the federal government.
Concurrent Powers
Powers not specifically mentoned in the Constitution.
Implied Powers
The right of the Supreme Court to determine if a law violates te Constitution.
Judicial Review
To set something aside for a particular purpose, especially funds.
appropriate
To formally charge a public official wiht misconduct in office.
Impeach
People that members of Congress represent.
Constitents
Permanent Comittees in both the house and the Sentate that specialize in particular topic, such as agriculture, commerce , or veterans affiars.
Standing Committees
Committees that focus on a paricular aspect of a problem or issue.
Subcommittees
The House and the Senate sometimes form temporary _________ to deal with issues requiring special attetion.
Select Committees
Occassionally the House and the Senate form _________ with members from both houses.
Joint Committee
A type of joint committee, _______, has a special function
Conference Committee. If the house and the Senate pass different versions of the same bill a conference committe e tries to wor out a compromise bill acceptable to both houses.
A group that helps the president make decisions and set government policy.
Cabinet
In 1789 Cogress passed ____, which added a series of district courts to the federal court system.
Judiciary Act
At the lowest level of the feederal court system are the United States __________.
district courts
The next level of federal courts, the ________ courts, reviews district court decisions in which the losing side has asked for a review of the verdict.
Appeals Courts
The _______ court stands at the top of the American legal system.
Supreme Court
Determining an explanation for the decision is called the Court's _____.
opinion
Idea that the government must follow procedures established by law and gaurenteed by the Constitution.
do process of law
A person who owes loyalty to and is entitled to the protection of a state or nation.
citizen
A person of foreign birth can also become a citizen thrugh the process of _________.
naturalization
What are duties and what are responsibilities?
Duties are things we are required to do by law and responsibilities are things we should do.