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56 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
John Winthrop
A leader of a colony by Massachusetts Bay. Part of Puritans. Wanted to start new society to be based on laws of God. First Governor of Mass. Example for others. Helped Mass. grow.
Roger Williams
Disagreed with leaders of Mass. Young minister. Gentle and good natured. Thought Puritan Church had too much power & business. Church & state should all be separate. Believed in religious toleration & got kicked out of Mass. Bought land that became Rhode Island.
Anne Hutchinson
Lived in Boston with family. Held Bible readings at home. Discussed minister's sermon at first. Later expressed own views on religion - criticized ministers teachings sometimes. Got in trouble and had to go to court. Couldn't prove guilty. Was banded from colony for saying God spoke directly to her.
Thomas Hooker
Puritan minister. Left Mass. to build town of Hartford. Believed governor and other officials had too much power. Wanted colony with strict government laws.
Why did the Puritans leave England?
King Charles took away business charters. Expelled them from universities and put in jail. Religious freedom.
Why was Connecticut founded?
Because Thomas Hooker believed that the governor and other officials in Mass. Bay had too much power. He wanted to start a colony with strict laws on government.
Why was Rhode Island founded?
Because Roger Williams believed that the Puritan Church had too much power. He wanted to start a colony where church and business were separate. More religious tolerance.
What was the Great Migration?
It was when more than 20,000 people from England moved to Mass.
How did the colonists make their living?
fishing, farming and hunting. Indian crops, whales, cut trees, ship building, fur trade, iron and rum production.
Williams Penn
founded Pennsylvania, became a Quaker, wanted a colony of religious freedom, peace and Christian living. Belived land belonged to Indians. Equal people.
owners of manors in Dutch New Netherlands.
Proprietary Colony
a colony set up by King where the proprietors could divide and rent out land to people. SC, NJ, Penn., ML
Cash Crops
crops that are sold for money on the world market. wheat, barley, rye, indigo, rice, tobacco
How did New Netherlands become New York?
King of England gave it to his brother, Duke of York on his birthday and he named it after himself.
Why was New Jersey founded?
Duke of York had too much land so he gave it to his friends.
Why was Pennsylvania founded?
William Penn was a Quaker that wanted religious freedom by starting a colony. Holy experiment.
Who are the Quakers and what do they believe?
religious group that are Protestant reformers. believed that all people were equal in God's sight. spoke out against war and bowing.
Why was Delaware founded?
lower Pennsylvania didn't want to send delegates all the way to the assembly in Philadelphia, so they chose their own assembly and eventually broke away to Delaware.
Why are the Middle Colonies called the Breadbasket Colonies?
Because they exported so much grain.
What was it like to live in the Backcountry?
Lots of thick forests to clear if you wanted to farm. They learned skills from the Indians and invited a new gun to shoot out in the backcountry. Conflicts from Indians.
Lord Baltimore
Sir George Calvert - son. Took over Maryland project when dad died. Proprietor of Maryland. Created elected assembly. Catholics freely practiced.
Nathaniel Bacon
Organized angry men & women on frontier. Raided Native American villages. Burned capital (Jamestown)
James Ogelthorpe
Respected soldier. Founded Georgia in 1732. Wanted Georgia to be a place where people jailed for debt in England could make a new start. Paid for people to travel to Georgia.
Mason-Dixon Line
The boundary between Pennsylvania and Maryland and divider of the middle colonies and southern colonies. Official line between north and south.
Act of Toleration
A document that provided religious freedom for all Christians (didn't pertain to Jews)
The region where the land was washed by ocean tides along the coastal plain and rich farm land.
Slave Codes
A law that set out rules for the slave's behavior and denied them their basic rights.
Middle Passage
The trip with slaves from Africa to America.
What is so important about Mason-Dixon line?
Southern colonies developed a way of life different from the other English colonies. Official line between north and south.
Why was Maryland founded?
So Catholics could practice religion freely. George Calvert, Lord Baltimore.
What caused Bacon's Rebellion?
Governor refused to take action against Native Americans. Governor made money off Indians, Virginia.
Why did many people move to the Carolinas?
Because it had nice land, it could grow rice, and had many cheap slaves, and basically could grow anything, fertile soil, good seasons.
Why did North and South Carolina split?
Because of the difference between the two areas in government. South was rich, and North was poor.
Why was Georgia founded?
So people in Englad that were jailed for debt could get a new start. No slaves and no big farms. James Oglethorp.
Why did plantations spring up in the southern colonies.
Oglethorp changed the rules to allow plantations and slavery. Tobacco and rice were profitable with plantations.
What contributed to growth of slavery?
Because of the skills they brought from Africa. Helped with farming. Immune to English diseases, more plantations/more labor, hard labor.
What was the attitude of most colonists towards slavery? Who differed in this opinion?
Colonist attitude towards slavery was that they did not question the justice of owning slaves. The Quakers differed in this opinion.
An economic theory that the purpose of colonies was to benefit the home country, a nation became strong, by building up its gold supply and expanding trade according to this theory.
goods brought into a country
goods sent to markets outside a country
Triangular Trade
a route that had three legs that formed a triangle.
a group of people who have power to make laws, usually had an upper house and a lower house.
How is merchantilism related to trade in the colonies?
Mercantilist thinking that a country should export more than it should import.
How did the Navigation Acts affect the colonies?
gave them more jobs and restrictions.
How were political officials chosen in the colonies? What were the exceptions?
Chosen by election.
How did the Glorious Revolution affect the colonists?
winning more rights.
What did the English Bill of Rights do for the colonists?
gave them protection of the rights of individuals and gave anyone accused of a crime the right to a trial of a jury. Also that a ruler could not raise taxes or an army without the approval of Parliment.
Benjamin Franklin
leading citizen of Philadelphia. Wanted citizens to put free time to good use. Started American Philosophical Society, culture that mixed Native Americans, Europeans and Africans. Invented rod to protect buildings from fire during thunderstorm. Proved lightning was form of electricity. Started own printing business at 17. Invented first library, got city to pave streets.
highest class. very rich, best jobs, bought best and most fashionable clothes from London. planters, merchants, ministers, lawyers, officials.
indentured servant
slaves, servants, farmhands, promised to work from 4-7 years for paid way to America.
work for a master to learn a trade or craft.
What were primary duties of women in colonies?
take care of family, household and husband. cook, make clothing, take care of animals and watch children.
In the cities, women had more opportunities. Give examples.
maid, cook, nurse for richer family. sew clothing for rich women.
How did schooling in Mass. compare to schooling in southern and middle colonies?
Mass. set up a public school system where the taxes and government paid for the schools. In the southern colonies they had a tutor or wealthy sent their sons away to school. In middle colonies, they had private schools which you had to pay to get into, so wealthy were educated.
How were apprentices educated?
by living with a master and having that master teach them a certain job.
Where girls educated?
by either a dame school or taught home skills by their mothers. A few learned to read and write.