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25 Cards in this Set

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a percieved incompatibility of actions or goals
conflict
In conflict we see one sides win...
as another sides loss.
Conflict signifies commitment and involvement. according to this what is PEACE?
peace in its most positive effect is a positively and creatively managed conflict.
what creates conflict?
social dilemnas
Choices that are individually rewarding become collectively punishing.
Two laboratory examples of social dilemna study are
The Prisoner's dilemna and the Tragedy at the commons.
Prisoner's dilemna
each person must independently decide whether to cooperate or compete. Both persons outcomes depend on the pattern of choice. 2 suspects are believed to have committed a major crime together we only have enough evidence to convict minor crime. If neither confesses they will both serve 1 yr. If both confess they will each get 5 yrs. If one confesses and the other doesn’t the confessor goes free and the other gets 10 yrs. Most of the time both confess
The "commons" is a shared resourcem including air, water, energy sources and food supplies. the tragedy occurs when individuals consume more than their share, with the cost of their doing so dispersed among all, causing the ultimate collapse
Tragedy of commons.
a social dilemma in which everyone must contribute to a common pool to maintain the common good (donating blood, taxes)
Public goods dilemma
Tragedy of the Commons: what happens when resources are NOT partitioned
People end up using MORE than they even REALIZE they do. (More likely to overserve yourself mashed potatos than chicken)
in both Prisoners dilemna and tragedy of the commons, how do people explain their behaviors vs those of others
People explain their behaviors as situational (i had to do it) wheras others beahaviors are explained dispositionally (she is greedy).
in both cases of social dilemna (prisoners dilemna and tragedy of the Commons) there is a change in motivation. what is it?
At first people are motivated to win money/something. Next people just want to minimize their own losses. finally people wish to save face and avoid defeat.
Games and events where with cooperation both can win; with competition both can lose.
Non zero sum games
Ways of resolving social dilemna
(5 ways)
1.) regulating (resolves the whole mashed potato thing)

2.) Make groups small (each person beceomes disinct and more self-concientious)

3.)Communicating (forcing discussion makes everyone's welfare salient (especially face to face). also reduces mistrust.

4.)Changing the payoff- making cooperation more rewarding and competition less rewarding reduces social dilemnas.

5.) Appeals to altruistic norms- just "knowing" the effets of your consequence on others is not enough.
Conflict and competition
competition accentuates percieved differeces.
Robbers Cave study: Competition and conflict.
11 and 12 yr old Oklahoma “cream of the crop” divided into two groups. Rode in different busses to the camp. THE TWO GROUPS DON’T KNOW OF EACHOTHER. They setup ingroups. Setup to meet at the baseball field. Really conflicted and had competitive games (outgroup). namecalling and the win-lose competition prodused negative images of outgroup. (GROUPS BEHAVE MORE COMPETITIVELY THAN INDIVIDUALS IN COMPETITION-FOSTERING SITUATIONS (group polarization)
SHERIF TRIED _________ ________, where contact between numbers of different groups leads to more positive intergroup attitudes.
Contact hypothesis
What was the result of contact hypothesis at robbers cave?
Unsuccessful.
In sherif's robers cave what ultimately did work to get the boys to like one anohter?
Sherif staged subordinate goals. shared goals that necessitates cooperative effort.
Equal status of two groups- each groups behavior must affect the other group in such a way that the groups are equal.
justice has been defined as equity. what do studies show about "our" equity vs. others' "equity"
You are more sensitive to inequity when you are on the shorter end. we tend to rationalize our "over equity"
According to the book who prevails in disagreements? "Golden rule"
those with social power convince themselves and others that they deserve what they're getting.
Equity theory suggests that those who feel more competent and worthy are MORE likely to
retaliate and not accept others' positions in a conflict.
Gallup polls reveal an INCREASE in women's perceptions of gener inequity. How is that possible? (1972 vs 1993)
In 1972 women compared themselves with other women and evaluated themselves at about the same level as others. Now women equate themselves with men and the "relative deprivation has grown".
Mirror image perceptions example
Cold war
group conflicts are often fueled by an illusion that the enemy's top leader is evil but their people are controlled and manipulated and actually "pro us" this is called
evil leader- good people perception.
Simplistic thinking in conflicts
Studies show that even the expectation of conflict can serve to freeze criical thinking and engage in more stereotyped thought.