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79 Cards in this Set
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MODE
definition 
Category or score that occurs the most


Unimodal
Bimodal Multimodal No Modal 
Unimodal  1 category occurs the most
Bimodal  2 categories tie Multimodal  3+ categories tie No Modal  No categories are more than the rest 

Mode is the ONLY measure that can be used with...

Nominal level measures


MODE

NOMINAL


MEDIAN
definition 
Point that divides observations into 2 equal halves


Median is used when working with...

Rank ordered data


MEAN
definition 
Sum of all the scores divided by the number of scores summed


Mean is used with...

interval/ratio data


Deciding what measures to use:
Nominal Ordinal Interval/Ratio 
Nominal = Mode
Ordinal = Mode & Median Interval/Ratio = Mode, Median, & Mean 

Median is more resistant to outliers than..

The mean


RANGE
definition 
Subtracting the lowest value from the highest


VARIANCE
definition 
Arithmetic average of the squared deviations


DEVIATION
definition 
The distance between a score and the mean


STANDARD DEVIATION
definition 
Square root of the variance tells us how the average score in a distribution varies from the mean


You can never have what value for a standard deviation?

A negative value should never occur


Standard deviation is used best with what measures?

Interval/Ratio


RATIO
definition 
Compares 2 quantities that have the same units


RATE
definition 
Compare 2 quantities with Different types of units


PROPORTION
definition 
States that 2 ratio/rates are equal


PERCENT
definition 
A number divided by 100 and written with a % sign behind it


Research Hypothesis
definition 
A declarative sentence stating how 2+ variables are believed to relate or differ from each other


What is the abbreviatio of research hypothesis?

H1


Null Hypothesis
definition 
A sentence that states that there is NO real relationship/difference between variables in the population


2 tailed Research Hypothesis
definition 
States how 2+ variables will relate, BUT doesn't state the direction


1 tailed Research Hypothesis
definition 
States the direction of how 2+ variables will relate


Nondirectional hypothesis is a ...

2 tailed research hypothesis


Directional hypothesis is a...

1 tailed research hypothesis


Signficance Level is also known as an...

Alpha Level


Alpha Level
definition 
Indicates how big a risk a researcher is williing to take in REJECTING the null


Alpha level can also be defined as...

The odds that the observed result is due to chance


The lower the alpha the less likely...

the researcher will make an error


Decision Rule
definition 
A statement that specifies what values of a sample statistic will promt you to retain or reject H0


TYPE 1 Error
definition 
When one says "There is a relationship,"
BUT there is NO RELATIONSHIP 

Type II Error
defintiion 
When one says, "There is no relationship, BUT THERE IS a relationship."


Normal Distribution
definition 
A mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.


Normal distributions allow us to...

1) Determine exact proportions/percentages between any 2 scores
2) How a score relates to another 3) Compare scores 4) Estimate probability of an event's occurence 

Zscores turn normal distributions into..

Standardized normal distributions


Zcurve/Zscore
alternate names 
1)Standard normal distribution
2)Standard score 

Zscore
calculation 
(Raw score  Mean)
 Standard deviation 

If a Zscore is Larger than the mean...

The zscore will be +


To determine the percentage of a score in relation to the whole, you should...

1)Calculate the zscore
2)Use a table to determine the percentage 3a) Add 50.0 if you want the percentage under a score and 3b)Subtract from 50.0 to determine the percentage above the score 

Chi Square
definition 
A statistical procedure determines whether the proportion of persons with some charateristic is the same for 1 group as for another.


When is Chi Square used?

When the DV is categorical
and it needs to be analyzed with a nominal independent variable 

If the Chi Square is small...
If the Chi Square is LARGE... 
Small = small insignficant, little to no association between variables
LARGE = signficant association between variables 

Chi Square can be used with what kind of data?

Nominal and Ordinal


Chi Square can NOT be used with what data?

Intervallevel unless categories are created


When the Chi Square is used to determine how the proportions of sample compare with the population you are doing a test called...

Goodness of Fit


A Chi Square allows for what...

A researcher to have enormous flexibility and
Have no limit on the number of categories 

Alpha level can also be defined as...

The odds that the observed result is due to chance


The lower the alpha the less likely...

the researcher will make an error


Decision Rule
definition 
A statement that specifies what values of a sample statistic will promt you to retain or reject H0


TYPE 1 Error
definition 
When one says "There is a relationship,"
BUT there is NO RELATIONSHIP 

Type II Error
defintiion 
When one says, "There is no relationship, BUT THERE IS a relationship."


Normal Distribution
definition 
A mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.


Normal distributions allow us to...

1) Determine exact proportions/percentages between any 2 scores
2) How a score relates to another 3) Compare scores 4) Estimate probability of an event's occurence 

Zscores turn normal distributions into..

Standardized normal distributions


Zcurve/Zscore
alternate names 
1)Standard normal distribution
2)Standard score 

Zscore
calculation 
(Raw score  Mean)
 Standard deviation 

If a Zscore is Larger than the mean...

The zscore will be +


To determine the percentage of a score in relation to the whole, you should...

1)Calculate the zscore
2)Use a table to determine the percentage 3a) Add 50.0 if you want the percentage under a score and 3b)Subtract from 50.0 to determine the percentage above the score 

tTest
definition 
A bivariate analysis that examines the differences between the 2 groups by looking at their means while weighing the sampling error


Degrees of Freedom
definition 
A numerical way of expressing how much capacity the data have to vary


Independentsamples tTest
definition 
A tTest used when 2 group are not connected or related to each other in a direct way


Independent tTest is used when you have...

2 groups NOT connected in a direct way


Paired tTest are used when you have...

A single (1) group is measured mutliple times


If you have Pretest, Intervention, and Posttest you use what tTest?

Paired tTest


OneSample tTest
defintion 
Used to determine if a randomly drawn sample is representative of the population


OneSample tTest is used when...

The population parameters are already known


ANOVA stands for...

Oneway Analysis of Variance


ANOVA
definition 
definition Statistical procedure used when with an interval dependent variable and 3+ groups


ANOVA is based on...

The variance within groups and between groups


ANOVA allows the researcher to...

Understand if the groups signficantly vary


4 Questions a researcher should consider with ANOVA

1)Is data measured at interval and are they a random sample of larger populations?
2)Are the groups independent of each other? 3) Are the data normally distributed? 4) Is there approximately the same # of cases in each group? 

ANOVA df will equal...

The number of subjects minus 1


Single Subject Design
defintion 
Quasiexperimental research that involves assessing change in a dependent variable on a single research subject


Why the use of SSD?

1)Traditional research is too quantitative
2)Group experiments are difficult to conduct in clincial settings 3) Aggregate data obsures individual difference 

Positive features of SSD

1) Bridges research/practice gap
2) Personalization of research 3) Comparison of time periods for 1 client 

Types of SSD Designs

AB
ABA or ABAB  withdrawal/reversal ABC/ABCD  modifications to interventions 

Limitations

1) Difficult to determine reliability of individual's observations
2) Difficult to assess the viability of alternative explanations 3) researchers konw expectations and hypotheses thus can influence the outcome 4) gernalizability limited 