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### 79 Cards in this Set

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 MODE -definition- Category or score that occurs the most Unimodal Bimodal Multimodal No Modal Unimodal - 1 category occurs the most Bimodal - 2 categories tie Multimodal - 3+ categories tie No Modal - No categories are more than the rest Mode is the ONLY measure that can be used with... Nominal level measures MODE NOMINAL MEDIAN -definition- Point that divides observations into 2 equal halves Median is used when working with... Rank ordered data MEAN -definition- Sum of all the scores divided by the number of scores summed Mean is used with... interval/ratio data Deciding what measures to use: Nominal Ordinal Interval/Ratio Nominal = Mode Ordinal = Mode & Median Interval/Ratio = Mode, Median, & Mean Median is more resistant to outliers than.. The mean RANGE -definition- Subtracting the lowest value from the highest VARIANCE -definition- Arithmetic average of the squared deviations DEVIATION -definition- The distance between a score and the mean STANDARD DEVIATION -definition- Square root of the variance tells us how the average score in a distribution varies from the mean You can never have what value for a standard deviation? A negative value should never occur Standard deviation is used best with what measures? Interval/Ratio RATIO -definition- Compares 2 quantities that have the same units RATE -definition- Compare 2 quantities with Different types of units PROPORTION -definition- States that 2 ratio/rates are equal PERCENT -definition- A number divided by 100 and written with a % sign behind it Research Hypothesis -definition- A declarative sentence stating how 2+ variables are believed to relate or differ from each other What is the abbreviatio of research hypothesis? H1 Null Hypothesis -definition- A sentence that states that there is NO real relationship/difference between variables in the population 2 tailed Research Hypothesis -definition- States how 2+ variables will relate, BUT doesn't state the direction 1 tailed Research Hypothesis -definition- States the direction of how 2+ variables will relate Nondirectional hypothesis is a ... 2 tailed research hypothesis Directional hypothesis is a... 1 tailed research hypothesis Signficance Level is also known as an... Alpha Level Alpha Level -definition- Indicates how big a risk a researcher is williing to take in REJECTING the null Alpha level can also be defined as... The odds that the observed result is due to chance The lower the alpha the less likely... the researcher will make an error Decision Rule -definition- A statement that specifies what values of a sample statistic will promt you to retain or reject H0 TYPE 1 Error -definition- When one says "There is a relationship," BUT there is NO RELATIONSHIP Type II Error -defintiion- When one says, "There is no relationship, BUT THERE IS a relationship." Normal Distribution -definition- A mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. Normal distributions allow us to... 1) Determine exact proportions/percentages between any 2 scores 2) How a score relates to another 3) Compare scores 4) Estimate probability of an event's occurence Z-scores turn normal distributions into.. Standardized normal distributions Z-curve/Z-score -alternate names- 1)Standard normal distribution 2)Standard score Z-score -calculation- (Raw score - Mean) ------------------- Standard deviation If a Z-score is Larger than the mean... The z-score will be + To determine the percentage of a score in relation to the whole, you should... 1)Calculate the z-score 2)Use a table to determine the percentage 3a) Add 50.0 if you want the percentage under a score and 3b)Subtract from 50.0 to determine the percentage above the score Chi Square -definition- A statistical procedure determines whether the proportion of persons with some charateristic is the same for 1 group as for another. When is Chi Square used? When the DV is categorical and it needs to be analyzed with a nominal independent variable If the Chi Square is small... If the Chi Square is LARGE... Small = small insignficant, little to no association between variables LARGE = signficant association between variables Chi Square can be used with what kind of data? Nominal and Ordinal Chi Square can NOT be used with what data? Interval-level unless categories are created When the Chi Square is used to determine how the proportions of sample compare with the population you are doing a test called... Goodness of Fit A Chi Square allows for what... A researcher to have enormous flexibility and Have no limit on the number of categories Alpha level can also be defined as... The odds that the observed result is due to chance The lower the alpha the less likely... the researcher will make an error Decision Rule -definition- A statement that specifies what values of a sample statistic will promt you to retain or reject H0 TYPE 1 Error -definition- When one says "There is a relationship," BUT there is NO RELATIONSHIP Type II Error -defintiion- When one says, "There is no relationship, BUT THERE IS a relationship." Normal Distribution -definition- A mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1. Normal distributions allow us to... 1) Determine exact proportions/percentages between any 2 scores 2) How a score relates to another 3) Compare scores 4) Estimate probability of an event's occurence Z-scores turn normal distributions into.. Standardized normal distributions Z-curve/Z-score -alternate names- 1)Standard normal distribution 2)Standard score Z-score -calculation- (Raw score - Mean) ------------------- Standard deviation If a Z-score is Larger than the mean... The z-score will be + To determine the percentage of a score in relation to the whole, you should... 1)Calculate the z-score 2)Use a table to determine the percentage 3a) Add 50.0 if you want the percentage under a score and 3b)Subtract from 50.0 to determine the percentage above the score t-Test -definition- A bivariate analysis that examines the differences between the 2 groups by looking at their means while weighing the sampling error Degrees of Freedom -definition- A numerical way of expressing how much capacity the data have to vary Independent-samples t-Test -definition- A t-Test used when 2 group are not connected or related to each other in a direct way Independent t-Test is used when you have... 2 groups NOT connected in a direct way Paired t-Test are used when you have... A single (1) group is measured mutliple times If you have Pre-test, Intervention, and Post-test you use what t-Test? Paired t-Test One-Sample t-Test -defintion- Used to determine if a randomly drawn sample is representative of the population One-Sample t-Test is used when... The population parameters are already known ANOVA stands for... One-way Analysis of Variance ANOVA -definition- -definition- Statistical procedure used when with an interval dependent variable and 3+ groups ANOVA is based on... The variance within groups and between groups ANOVA allows the researcher to... Understand if the groups signficantly vary 4 Questions a researcher should consider with ANOVA 1)Is data measured at interval and are they a random sample of larger populations? 2)Are the groups independent of each other? 3) Are the data normally distributed? 4) Is there approximately the same # of cases in each group? ANOVA df will equal... The number of subjects minus 1 Single Subject Design -defintion- Quasi-experimental research that involves assessing change in a dependent variable on a single research subject Why the use of SSD? 1)Traditional research is too quantitative 2)Group experiments are difficult to conduct in clincial settings 3) Aggregate data obsures individual difference Positive features of SSD 1) Bridges research/practice gap 2) Personalization of research 3) Comparison of time periods for 1 client Types of SSD Designs AB ABA or ABAB - withdrawal/reversal ABC/ABCD - modifications to interventions Limitations 1) Difficult to determine reliability of individual's observations 2) Difficult to assess the viability of alternative explanations 3) researchers konw expectations and hypotheses thus can influence the outcome 4) gernalizability limited