Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/79

Click to flip

79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
MODE
-definition-
Category or score that occurs the most
Unimodal
Bimodal
Multimodal
No Modal
Unimodal - 1 category occurs the most
Bimodal - 2 categories tie
Multimodal - 3+ categories tie
No Modal - No categories are more than the rest
Mode is the ONLY measure that can be used with...
Nominal level measures
MODE
NOMINAL
MEDIAN
-definition-
Point that divides observations into 2 equal halves
Median is used when working with...
Rank ordered data
MEAN
-definition-
Sum of all the scores divided by the number of scores summed
Mean is used with...
interval/ratio data
Deciding what measures to use:
Nominal
Ordinal
Interval/Ratio
Nominal = Mode
Ordinal = Mode & Median
Interval/Ratio = Mode, Median, & Mean
Median is more resistant to outliers than..
The mean
RANGE
-definition-
Subtracting the lowest value from the highest
VARIANCE
-definition-
Arithmetic average of the squared deviations
DEVIATION
-definition-
The distance between a score and the mean
STANDARD DEVIATION
-definition-
Square root of the variance tells us how the average score in a distribution varies from the mean
You can never have what value for a standard deviation?
A negative value should never occur
Standard deviation is used best with what measures?
Interval/Ratio
RATIO
-definition-
Compares 2 quantities that have the same units
RATE
-definition-
Compare 2 quantities with Different types of units
PROPORTION
-definition-
States that 2 ratio/rates are equal
PERCENT
-definition-
A number divided by 100 and written with a % sign behind it
Research Hypothesis
-definition-
A declarative sentence stating how 2+ variables are believed to relate or differ from each other
What is the abbreviatio of research hypothesis?
H1
Null Hypothesis
-definition-
A sentence that states that there is NO real relationship/difference between variables in the population
2 tailed Research Hypothesis
-definition-
States how 2+ variables will relate, BUT doesn't state the direction
1 tailed Research Hypothesis
-definition-
States the direction of how 2+ variables will relate
Nondirectional hypothesis is a ...
2 tailed research hypothesis
Directional hypothesis is a...
1 tailed research hypothesis
Signficance Level is also known as an...
Alpha Level
Alpha Level
-definition-
Indicates how big a risk a researcher is williing to take in REJECTING the null
Alpha level can also be defined as...
The odds that the observed result is due to chance
The lower the alpha the less likely...
the researcher will make an error
Decision Rule
-definition-
A statement that specifies what values of a sample statistic will promt you to retain or reject H0
TYPE 1 Error
-definition-
When one says "There is a relationship,"
BUT there is NO RELATIONSHIP
Type II Error
-defintiion-
When one says, "There is no relationship, BUT THERE IS a relationship."
Normal Distribution
-definition-
A mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.
Normal distributions allow us to...
1) Determine exact proportions/percentages between any 2 scores
2) How a score relates to another
3) Compare scores
4) Estimate probability of an event's occurence
Z-scores turn normal distributions into..
Standardized normal distributions
Z-curve/Z-score
-alternate names-
1)Standard normal distribution
2)Standard score
Z-score
-calculation-
(Raw score - Mean)
-------------------
Standard deviation
If a Z-score is Larger than the mean...
The z-score will be +
To determine the percentage of a score in relation to the whole, you should...
1)Calculate the z-score
2)Use a table to determine the percentage
3a) Add 50.0 if you want the percentage under a score and
3b)Subtract from 50.0 to determine the percentage above the score
Chi Square
-definition-
A statistical procedure determines whether the proportion of persons with some charateristic is the same for 1 group as for another.
When is Chi Square used?
When the DV is categorical
and it needs to be analyzed with a nominal independent variable
If the Chi Square is small...
If the Chi Square is LARGE...
Small = small insignficant, little to no association between variables
LARGE = signficant association between variables
Chi Square can be used with what kind of data?
Nominal and Ordinal
Chi Square can NOT be used with what data?
Interval-level unless categories are created
When the Chi Square is used to determine how the proportions of sample compare with the population you are doing a test called...
Goodness of Fit
A Chi Square allows for what...
A researcher to have enormous flexibility and
Have no limit on the number of categories
Alpha level can also be defined as...
The odds that the observed result is due to chance
The lower the alpha the less likely...
the researcher will make an error
Decision Rule
-definition-
A statement that specifies what values of a sample statistic will promt you to retain or reject H0
TYPE 1 Error
-definition-
When one says "There is a relationship,"
BUT there is NO RELATIONSHIP
Type II Error
-defintiion-
When one says, "There is no relationship, BUT THERE IS a relationship."
Normal Distribution
-definition-
A mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.
Normal distributions allow us to...
1) Determine exact proportions/percentages between any 2 scores
2) How a score relates to another
3) Compare scores
4) Estimate probability of an event's occurence
Z-scores turn normal distributions into..
Standardized normal distributions
Z-curve/Z-score
-alternate names-
1)Standard normal distribution
2)Standard score
Z-score
-calculation-
(Raw score - Mean)
-------------------
Standard deviation
If a Z-score is Larger than the mean...
The z-score will be +
To determine the percentage of a score in relation to the whole, you should...
1)Calculate the z-score
2)Use a table to determine the percentage
3a) Add 50.0 if you want the percentage under a score and
3b)Subtract from 50.0 to determine the percentage above the score
t-Test
-definition-
A bivariate analysis that examines the differences between the 2 groups by looking at their means while weighing the sampling error
Degrees of Freedom
-definition-
A numerical way of expressing how much capacity the data have to vary
Independent-samples t-Test
-definition-
A t-Test used when 2 group are not connected or related to each other in a direct way
Independent t-Test is used when you have...
2 groups NOT connected in a direct way
Paired t-Test are used when you have...
A single (1) group is measured mutliple times
If you have Pre-test, Intervention, and Post-test you use what t-Test?
Paired t-Test
One-Sample t-Test
-defintion-
Used to determine if a randomly drawn sample is representative of the population
One-Sample t-Test is used when...
The population parameters are already known
ANOVA stands for...
One-way Analysis of Variance
ANOVA
-definition-
-definition- Statistical procedure used when with an interval dependent variable and 3+ groups
ANOVA is based on...
The variance within groups and between groups
ANOVA allows the researcher to...
Understand if the groups signficantly vary
4 Questions a researcher should consider with ANOVA
1)Is data measured at interval and are they a random sample of larger populations?
2)Are the groups independent of each other?
3) Are the data normally distributed?
4) Is there approximately the same # of cases in each group?
ANOVA df will equal...
The number of subjects minus 1
Single Subject Design
-defintion-
Quasi-experimental research that involves assessing change in a dependent variable on a single research subject
Why the use of SSD?
1)Traditional research is too quantitative
2)Group experiments are difficult to conduct in clincial settings
3) Aggregate data obsures individual difference
Positive features of SSD
1) Bridges research/practice gap
2) Personalization of research
3) Comparison of time periods for 1 client
Types of SSD Designs
AB
ABA or ABAB - withdrawal/reversal
ABC/ABCD - modifications to interventions
Limitations
1) Difficult to determine reliability of individual's observations
2) Difficult to assess the viability of alternative explanations
3) researchers konw expectations and hypotheses thus can influence the outcome
4) gernalizability limited